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Ecology

Living Vs. Non Living
• Living = Biotic
– – – – Reproduce Have genetic code Grow and Develop Use energy (metabolism) – Respond to Environment – Maintain a stable internal environment – Change over time

• Non-living = Abiotic
– Not having qualities from the other column
• • • • • • Light Temperature Water Gasses Soil pH

Ecology
• The study of the interactions of organisms and their relationship with their physical environment

Organization of Ecology
Biosphere Biome Ecosystem Community Population Species

Species
• Similar organisms that are capable of breeding

Population
• Members of a species inhabiting a given location

Community
• Populations that depend on each other.

Ecosystem
• An area that contains all living and nonliving parts that interact. • Must have these two criteria:
– A constant source of energy – A mechanism to cycle and recycle

Ecosystem

Biome

• A group of ecosystems with the same climate and dominant communities

Tundra
• Permanently frozen subsoil called PERMAFROST • Flora: lichens, mosses, and grasses • Fauna: Snowy owl, Caribou • This is the dryest of all of the biomes • Found in the high latitudes (north and south poles)

Taiga
• Long severe winters, summers with thawing sub soil • Flora: Conifers-cone bearing
– The Taiga is also known as the Coniferous forest.

• Fauna: Moose black bear • Much like Northern Canada

Temperate Deciduous Forest
• Moderate precipitation; cold winters, warm summers. • Flora: Deciduous trees (leaf bearing)
– ex: Maple’s and Oaks

• Fauna: Fox, deer, squirrels. • Much like where we live.

Tropical Rain Forest
• Heavy Rainfall; constant warmth • Flora: Many broadleaved plant species • Fauna: Snake, leopard, monkey • Found around the Equator • Lots of Biodiversity

Grassland
• Variability in rainfall and temperature; strong winds • Flora: Grasses • Fauna: Antelope, bison, prairie dog • Found in middle latitudes

Savannah
• Warm temperatures year round with a very long dry season and a very wet season. • Flora: Rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees • Fauna: Elephants, lions and baboons • Found around equator

Dessert
• Sparse rainfall, extreme daily temperature fluctuations • Flora: Drought resistant plants such as cacti • Fauna: Lizard, tortoise, kangaroo rat. • Found by Equator

Marine Biome
• Includes all the oceans of the earth, which actually make up one continuous body of water. • Holds most of the water on earth. • Most stable environment on earth • Absorbs and holds large quantities of solar heat • Most photosynthesis on earth takes place here.

Freshwater Biome
• Includes ponds, lakes, and rivers. • Vary in size

Biosphere
• Portion of the earth where life exists

Limiting Factors
• Things that determine what can live in a biome or ecosystem
– Examples:
• • • • • • Light Temperature range Amount of water Type of rock or subsoil Supply of gasses pH