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Ecology

Living Vs. Non Living


• Living = Biotic • Non-living = Abiotic
– Reproduce – Not having qualities
– Have genetic code from the other column
• Light
– Grow and Develop
• Temperature
– Use energy • Water
(metabolism) • Gasses
– Respond to • Soil
Environment • pH
– Maintain a stable
internal environment
– Change over time
Ecology
• The study of the interactions of organisms
and their relationship with their physical
environment
Organization of Ecology
Biosphere
Biome
Ecosystem
Community
Population
Species
Species
• Similar organisms that are capable of breeding
Population
• Members of a species inhabiting a given location
Community
• Populations that depend on each other.
Ecosystem
• An area that contains all living and
nonliving parts that interact.
• Must have these two criteria:
– A constant source of energy
– A mechanism to cycle and recycle
Ecosystem
Biome

• A group of ecosystems with the same climate


and dominant communities
Tundra
• Permanently frozen
subsoil called
PERMAFROST
• Flora: lichens, mosses,
and grasses
• Fauna: Snowy owl,
Caribou
• This is the dryest of all of
the biomes
• Found in the high
latitudes (north and south
poles)
Taiga
• Long severe winters,
summers with thawing
sub soil
• Flora: Conifers-cone
bearing
– The Taiga is also known as
the Coniferous forest.
• Fauna: Moose black bear
• Much like Northern
Canada
Temperate Deciduous Forest
• Moderate
precipitation; cold
winters, warm
summers.
• Flora: Deciduous
trees (leaf bearing)
– ex: Maple’s and Oaks
• Fauna: Fox, deer,
squirrels.
• Much like where we
live.
Tropical Rain Forest
• Heavy Rainfall;
constant warmth
• Flora: Many broad-
leaved plant species
• Fauna: Snake,
leopard, monkey
• Found around the
Equator
• Lots of Biodiversity
Grassland
• Variability in rainfall
and temperature;
strong winds
• Flora: Grasses
• Fauna: Antelope,
bison, prairie dog
• Found in middle
latitudes
Savannah
• Warm temperatures year
round with a very long dry
season and a very wet
season.
• Flora: Rolling grassland
scattered with shrubs and
isolated trees
• Fauna: Elephants, lions
and baboons
• Found around equator
Dessert
• Sparse rainfall,
extreme daily
temperature
fluctuations
• Flora: Drought
resistant plants such
as cacti
• Fauna: Lizard,
tortoise, kangaroo rat.
• Found by Equator
Marine Biome
• Includes all the oceans of
the earth, which actually
make up one continuous
body of water.
• Holds most of the water
on earth.
• Most stable environment
on earth
• Absorbs and holds large
quantities of solar heat
• Most photosynthesis on
earth takes place here.
Freshwater Biome
• Includes ponds,
lakes, and rivers.
• Vary in size
Biosphere
• Portion of the earth
where life exists
Limiting Factors
• Things that determine what can live in a
biome or ecosystem
– Examples:
• Light
• Temperature range
• Amount of water
• Type of rock or subsoil
• Supply of gasses
• pH