Rocks

Sedimentary

Formed under water bodies

Sedimentary Rocks

80 % of Earth’s surface is covered with sediments and Sedimentary Rocks

What is sediment????

Broken pieces of rocks called CLASTS Chemical precipitates ( dissolved solids come out of solution) Organic fragments – shells, decayed plant matter – this is called BIOCLASTIC

Source of Sediment

Weathering is the general term for all actions that break down or wear away rock Erosion is the carrying away of the sediment

Clastic
Formed by compaction and cementation

Ex: sandstone, shale, conglomerate

Bioclastic

Form from compression of dead organisms

Ex: Fossil, limestone, coal, petrified wood

ORGANIC Sedimentary Rocks
Bioclastic Sediment

LIMESTONE AND CORALS  Dissolved minerals taken out of solution by marine organisms for their hard parts (shells) can pile up on the seafloor when they die.  These fossil remains accumulate into a thick enough layer to form an “organic” sedimentary rock  Cement is commonly calcite ( bubbles with acid) COAL  Decayed plant remains

BIOCLASTIC LIMESTONE

CHEMICALLY PRECIPITATED LIMESTONE

COAL

Crystalline

Formed by evaporation and precipitation of minerals. Also called evaporites

Ex: rocksalt, gypsum

ROCK SALT

Intergrown crystals of just 1 mineral DOLOSTONE

ROCK GYPSUM

Sediments are pebbles, cobbles, and boulders
rounded

Breccia
angular

Silt (0.006 to 0.0004 cms. SILTSTONE

Sand (0.2 to 0.006 cms.) SANDSTONE

Clay (less than 0.0004 cms.) SHALE

Metamorphic Rock

Formed by the recrystalization by extreme temperature and/or pressure

HEAT EFFECTS
Temperature increases with depth or contact with magma  Recrystallization – a process that forms new mineral crystals because the mineral is no longer stable at the new temperature

• Changes

to a new (high temperature) mineral

PRESSURE EFFECTS
Pressure increases with depth – weight of overlying rock (see page 10 ESRT)  Mineral crystals grow larger  Mineral crystals are more dense  Mineral crystals grow perpendicular to pressure  Mineral crystals are arranged in parallel layers – PRODUCES FOLIATION

FOLIATION

Pressure actually rearranges the minerals into parallel layers. More pressure – minerals grow larger and recrystallize and separate into layers Even more pressure – alternating layers of light and dark minerals called

Banding
 

Shows foliation = layering of crystals Distorted structures
 

A lot of curves and folds in the bands They used to be horizonal but the heat and pressure has folded them

2 Types of Metamorphism

Regional Metamorphism – Occurs over large areas where there is active mountain building
a)

Convergent plate boundaries

Contact Metamorphism – areas in contact with magma intrusions and/or lava extrusions

2 Types of Metamorphism

Regional Metamorphism – Occurs over large areas where there is active mountain building
a)

Convergent plate boundaries

Contact Metamorphism – areas in contact with magma intrusions and/or lava extrusions

A metamorphic rock exposed to too much heat will melt and become ???

MAGMA

CONTACT METAMORPHISM

Contact Metamorphic

Metamorphism means "changed form". The Changes occur because of: Heat from magma intruding on the surrounding rock Very little pressure

 Near magma chambers (plutons)
 Rocks in “contact” with the magma are baked  New minerals are formed – recrystallization  Transition zone of contact metamorphism is usually relatively narrow baking the adjacent rocks

Contact Metamorphism – Baking the adjacent rocks

Symbol for Contact Metamorphism is a line with tick marks

When limestone undergoes contact metamorphism what rock will it metamorphose into? Sandstone??

PARENT ROCK IN THE COMMENTS

LIMESTONE METAMORPHOSES INTO MARBLE

SANDSTONE METAMORPHOSES INTO QUARTZITE

IGNEOUS ROCKS

MAGMA VS. LAVA
Magma – molten material BELOW the surface of the Earth

Lava – molten material AT OR ABOVE earth’s surface

ENVIRONMENT OF FORMATION COOLING HISTORY
MAGMA LAVA

Intrusive – below the surface

Extrusive - above the surface

A pluton is a body or Ejected from volcano chamber of magma deep inside the crust. Rocks formed when magma cools and solidifies are called
INTRUSIVE (PLUTONIC)

Rocks formed when lava cools and solidifies are called
EXTRUSIVE (VOLCANIC)

 COOLING

AND SOLIDIFICATION OF MAGMA/LAVA OR INTERCONNECTED SILICATE CRYSTALS IN A RANDOM PATTERN – NOT ORGANIZED

Formation of Igneous Rocks

 INTERGROWN

IGNEOUS ROCKS ARE CLASSIFIED BASED ON 2 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS
 TEXTURE

SIZE

– MINERAL GRAIN

 MINERAL

COMPOSITION

 WHAT

Classification of Igneous Rocks by Texture

IS TEXTURE?

It is not how it feels SIZE OF MINERAL CRYSTALS

What controls texture? How fast an igneous rock cools. What controls how fast an igneous rock cools? Where the rock is formed.
slower cooling coarser crystals deep in ground

ESRT – TOP OF THE IGNEOUS ROCK SCHEME TELLS THE TEXTURE / GRAIN SIZE

Classification of Igneous Rocks – Texture or Grain Size
Extrusive Volcanic LAVA Extrusive VolcanicLAVA Intrusive Plutonic MAGMA Slow Cooling Coarsegrained Intrusive Plutonic MAGMA Extremely slow cooling Very Coarsegrained

Extremely Fast fast cooling Cooling Glassyvesicular (gas pockets) Noncrystalline Finegrained

EXTRUSIVE – VOLCANIC - LAVA

When lava cools extremely fast crystals have no time to form – JUST FROZEN IN PLACE RANDOMLY WHEN LAVA ENTERS ATMOSPHERE OR WATER GLASSY – NON-CRYSTALLINE Non-vesicular Vesicular gas pockets

EXTRUSIVE – VOLCANIC - LAVA Lava that cools fast at or near the Earth’s surface

Produces small crystals FINE-GRAINED TEXTURE not easily seen with the naked eye.

INTRUSIVE – PLUTONIC - MAGMA
Magma that cools slowly deep underground produces large crystals COARSE-GRAINED TEXTURE easily seen with the naked eye.

INTRUSIVE – PLUTONIC - MAGMA EXTREMELY SLOW COOLING HAS ABNORMALLY LARGE CRYSTALS AND IS VERY COARSE.  

IGNEOUS ROCK MANTRA
 INTERGROWN

CRYSTALS IN A RANDOM PATTERN FOR ALL ROCKS EXCEPT: NO CRYSTALS  OBSIDIAN – GLASSY  PUMICE, SCORIA, VESICULAR BASALT – GAS

THE BOTTOM OF THE IGNEOUS ROCK SCHEME TELLS YOU THE COMPOSITION TEXTURE + COMPOSITION CAN NAME

Igneous Rocks Consist of 7 Silicate Minerals
Quartz Potassium feldspar Plagioclase feldspar Biotite mica Amphibole (hornblende) Pyroxene Olivine

NO SINGLE IGNEOUS ROCKS IS MADE UP OF ALL 7 MINERALS

CHARACTERISTICS OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

IN THE MIDDLE OF THE IGNEOUS ROCK SCHEME ARE CHARACTERISTICS BASED ON WHICH OF THE 7 SILICATE MINERALS ARE IN EACH ROCK. NOTICE 2 NEW WORDS FELSIC AND MAFIC

FELSIC VS. MAFIC
FELSIC MAFIC “FEL” = FELDSPARS “MA” = MAGNESIUM

“SIC” = SILICA

“F” = IRON

High % of quartz, feldspars, mica

“IC” = SILICA High % of pyroxene, feldspars, amphibole

LIGHTER IN COLOR LESS DENSE

DARKER IN COLOR MORE DENSE

Continental FELSIC

mixed oceanic MAFIC

mantle ULTRAMAFIC

FELSIC COMPOSITION COLUMN + COARSE TEXTURE ROW

IGNEOUS ROCK COMPOSITION
FELSIC ROCKS – CONTINENTAL CRUST GRANITE – coarse-grained (continental crust) RHYOLITE – fine-grained OBSIDIAN - glassy and PUMICE - porous (vesicular). PEGMATITE - very coarse-grained

IGNEOUS ROCK COMPOSITION
MAFIC ROCKS –OCEANIC CRUST GABBRO – coarse-grained BASALT – fine-grained (ocean crust) SCORIA – vesicular (gas pockets) VESICULAR BASALT – vesicular

IGNEOUS ROCK COMPOSITION
INTERMEDIATE ROCKS MIXED FELSIC/MAFIC MIXED CRUST ANDESITE (named for Andes Mountains) – fine-grained 2nd most abundant volcanic rock in Earth’s crust. DIORITE – coarse-grained

IGNEOUS ROCK COMPOSITION
ULTRAMAFIC ROCKS – form from magma in ASTHENOSPHERE Dominated by Fe-Mg silicates, olivine and pyroxene. Very dark in color and dense Found at converging continental plate boundaries.
Peridotite

Dunite

EXTRUSIVE

INTRUSIVE

Rhyolite Figure 4.7 A Granite SAME – TEXTURE ONLY DIFFERENCE MINERAL COMPOSITION THE
Intrusive vs. Extrusive

INTRUSIVE

EXTRUSIVE

MINERAL COMPOSITION THE SAME ---- TEXTURE ONLY DIFFERENCE Andesite

Diorite

Intrusive vs. Extrusive

INTRUSIVE

EXTRUSIVE

MINERAL COMPOSITION THE SAME – TEXTURE ONLY DIFFERENCE Intrusive vs. Extrusive

Gabbro

Basalt

Rock Formation

Almost all rocks are made of minerals The environment that a rock forms I will determine three characteristics:
1. 2. 3.

Composition: the type of minerals the rock is made of Structure: whether the rock has layers and what the layers look like Texture: how large the crystals of minerals are and their shape

Rock Cycle

Any one rock type can be changed into any other There is no perfected direction of movement.

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