Satellite Network Configurations

Capacity Allocation Strategies ‡ Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) ‡ Time division multiple access (TDMA) ‡ Code division multiple access (CDMA) .

‡ gives users an individual allocation of one or several frequency bands.FDMA ‡ a channel access method used in multipleaccess protocols as a channelization protocol. ‡ Disadvantage: Crosstalk which causes interference on the other frequency and may disrupt the transmission. or channels. .

FDMA is not sensitive to near-far problem which is pronounced for CDMA. ‡ not vulnerable to the timing problems that TDMA has. Since a predetermined frequency band is available for the entire period of communication. ‡ can be used with both analog and digital signal. in contrast to TDMA and CDMA. ‡ requires high-performing filters in the radio hardware.Features ‡ all users share the satellite simultaneously but each user transmits at single frequency. ‡ Due to the frequency filtering. stream data (a continuous flow of data that may not be packetized) can easily be used with FDMA. ‡ Each user transmits and receives at different frequencies as each user gets a unique frequency slot .

the traffic going back and forth between a mobile-phone and a base-station). is an access method in the data link layer. ‡ FDMA.FDMA & FDD & FDM ‡ FDMA allows multiple users simultaneous access to a certain system. ‡ FDM is a physical layer technique that combines and transmits low-bandwidth channels through a high-bandwidth channel. ‡ FDD refers to how the radio channel is shared between the uplink and downlink (for instance. . on the other hand.

± allows all users apparently continuous access of the radio spectrum by assigning carrier frequencies on a temporary basis using a statistical assignment process. .Forms of FDMA ‡ Fixed-assignment multiple access (FAMA) ± The assignment of capacity is distributed in a fixed manner among multiple stations ± Demand may fluctuate ± Results in the significant underuse of capacity ‡ Demand-assignment multiple access (DAMA) ± Capacity assignment is changed as needed to respond optimally to demand changes among the multiple stations.

since such systems are highly sensitive to interference from nearby satellites that are reusing the same channel. This result in traffic congestion and use of huge bandwidth. ‡ Another drawback with TDMA and FDMA systems with FAMA is that the number of channels remains constant irrespectively of the number of customers in a footprint. which is an difficult task in TDMA and FDMA based systems.FAMA-FDMA ‡ FAMA ± logical links between stations are preassigned ‡ FAMA ± multiple stations access the satellite by using different frequency bands ‡ requires manual frequency planning. .

DAMA TYPES ‡ SCPC ‡ MCPC .

. ‡ used on broadcast satellites to indicate that radio stations are not multiplexed as subcarriers onto a single video carrier. but instead independently share a transponder.SCPC ‡ refers to using a single signal at a given frequency and bandwidth. I ‡ t may also be used on other communications satellites. or occasionally on non-satellite transmissions.

unrestricted bandwidth. SCPC is essentially FDMA. ‡ Some applications use SCPC instead of TDMA. it does not make sense for burst transmissions like satellite internet access or telemetry. ‡ Where multiple access is concerned. the applications for SCPC are becoming more limited. satellite bandwidth is dedicated to a single source. ‡ However.SCPC contd. because they require guaranteed. ‡ This makes sense if it is being used for something like satellite radio. ‡ Another very common application is voice. ‡ In an SCPC system. since a customer would have to pay for the satellite bandwidth even when they were not using it.. where a small amount of fixed bandwidth is required. ‡ As satellite TDMA technology improves however. which broadcasts continuously. .

Advantages ‡ simple and reliable technology ‡ low-cost equipment ‡ any bandwidth (up to a full transponder) ± usually 64 kbit/s to 50 Mbit/s ‡ easy to add additional receive sites (earth stations) .

100 per minute (as of 2003) from the satellite operator.Disadvantages ‡ inefficient use of satellite bandwidth for burst transmissions. the transmitting dish must be protected. ‡ A dish which is moved out of alignment can result in fines as high as $1. typically encountered with packet data transmission ‡ usually requires on-site control ‡ When used in remote locations. .

RESULT: DELAY increases. ‡ The major disadvantage of MCPC is that all of the signals must be sent to a single place first. SOLN: use SCPC.MCPC ‡ several subcarriers are combined into a single bitstream before being modulated onto a carrier transmitted from a single location to one or more remote sites. . ‡ Uses TDM. then combined for retransmission.

Frequency-Division Multiple Access ‡ Factors which limit the number of subchannels provided within a satellite channel via FDMA ± Thermal noise ± Intermodulation noise ± Crosstalk .

Reasons for Increasing Use of TDM Techniques ‡ Cost of digital components continues to drop ‡ Advantages of digital components ± Use of error correction ‡ Increased efficiency of TDM ± Lack of intermodulation noise .

FAMA-TDMA Operation ‡ Transmission in the form of repetitive sequence of frames ± Each frame is divided into a number of time slots ± Each slot is dedicated to a particular transmitter ‡ Earth stations take turns using uplink channel ± Sends data in assigned time slot ‡ Satellite repeats incoming transmissions ± Broadcast to all stations ‡ Stations must know which slot to use for transmission and which to use for reception .

FAMA-TDMA Uplink .

FAMATDMA Downlink .

Thank you .

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