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Erosion

Erosion
 The transport or movement of weathered rock (broken down so it is easier to move) form original source (place) to some other area.

 New York State is covered with material that formed in Canada. How did it get there?

Glaciers

 Transported materials are far more common than residual…..Why?  At some point in time, most sediments will be moved.

Major Erosive Agents:
 Running Water  GLACIERS  WIND  OCEAN CURRENTS AND WAVES  MASS WASTING (GRAVITY!)  Man (Animals)

Running Water
 #1 agent of erosion (streams and rivers)  Carrying power depends on Velocity (speed)  depends on  Discharge and/or Gradient or slope.

Running Water
 Larger gradient or discharge = Faster Velocity = More Erosion and larger sediments can be carried  Leaves sediments round and smooth

THE GREATER THE VELOCITY OF A STREAM…

 THE LARGER THE SEDIMENT
PARTICLES IT CAN CARRY

 THE MORE TOTAL SEDIMENTS IT CAN
CARRY

Streams and Rivers Steep Slope
 Cross section of a stream  Where is the water flowing fastest? Why?  Fastest Flow occurs in the center, just below the surface  least amount of friction

3 factors affecting Stream Velocity
Gradient – slope of the stream Discharge – volume of water Stream channel shape

Stream Velocity in a Straight Channel Fastest – middle just below surface

RAPIDS AND WATERFALLS
 Rapids - Different resistance among rocks cause FAST-FLOWING WATER  Waterfalls – Rapids develop into waterfalls as softer rock erodes

Gentle Slope
 Water tends to have a tendency to meander back and forth when it flows.  The Flatter the land the greater the meandering

As the stream grows larger – it begins to shift its course in a series of bends or curves called meanders seeking out the lowest elevation

The velocity changes in the S-shaped curves called MEANDERS. Fastest on the outside of the curve – erosion Slowest on the inside of the curve - deposition

Point Bars show deposition Cut Banks show erosion

Cut bank on outside of curve due to higher velocity of water – more erosion

Cut bank on outside of curve Point Bar on inside of curve

Eventually, it takes too much energy to keep meandering, so rivers will cut off a bend, resulting in an OXBOW lake…

Stream Load
 The stuff a stream carries is called stream load  Carried in three ways
– Solution: dissolved particles like slats – Suspension: fine particles or sediments of clay or silt carried in the flow of water – Saltation: (rolling) Sand, pebbles, and boulders are bounced and rolled along the stream bed

 Flowing water will always move faster then the sediments

Running water will always carve out a V-SHAPED VALLEY

SEDIMENTS ERODED BY RUNNING WATER WILL HAVE THESE CHARACTERISTICS
 ROUNDED and SMOOTH  SORTED AND LAYERED

SEDIMENTS ERODED BY RUNNING WATER WILL BE …
 SORTED – all materials are about

the same size

Barrier Islands
 Wave Action creates sand bars  Waves and Longshore current - can form barrier islands Ex. Fire Island

Winds at the ocean’s surface cause waves

Longshore Current
 Waves are refracted or bent in the shallow water of the shore  Water near the shore is pushed in one direction along the shore – called longshore current Sediments are carried in a zig-zag pattern in the SAME direction as the longshore current

The sand trapping effect of the jetties to the north at Charleston, South Carolina has deprived Morris Island of needed sand. As a result, the island has eroded to the point that this previously land based lighthouse is now 400 meters out to sea.

Wind
    Moves fine particles (sand, silt, clay) Greater velocity moves larger particles Makes sand dunes on the beach Leaves rocks smooth, frosty, and with pits in on the surface.

Wind Erosion
 Sediment – sand or smaller  Arid regions or ocean coastlines  2 types: 1. Deflation – lowers the land 2. Sandblasting and Abrasion

Sandblasting and Abrasion
 Wind can only lift sand to about 1 meter high - results in “Mushroom Rock”  Frosted or Pitted sediments – rocks with flat sides

Windward side

Leeward side

Glaciers
 Slow moving “rivers” of ice  Greater volume of ice or greater slope means a greater velocity which means it erodes more.

An 1870 postcard view of the Rhone glacier in Gletsch, Switzerland, contrasted dramatically with the shrinking 21st-century version of it.

Glaciers: 2 Types
 VALLEY GLACIERS: long, slow-moving, streams of ice found in mountain areas (high elevation) occupying former river valleys  CONTINENTAL GLACIER (ICE SHEETS): very old (1000’s of years), thick (1000’s of meters) mass of ice covering almost an entire land mass
 GREENLAND: 1.7 Million SQ MI , 3 KM thick  ANTARCTIC: 12.5 Million SQ MI, 5 KM thick

VALLEY

CONTINENTAL

HOW DO GLACIERS MOVE?
 UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF GRAVITY  THEIR OWN WEIGHT THE DRIVING FORCE  UNDER PRESSURE THE DEEPER ICE BEHAVES LIKE A THICK FLUID (CALLED PLASTIC FLOW) AND FLOWS DOWNHILL OR SPREADS OUT IN ALL DIRECTIONS (when glacier is about 300 ft. thick)

GLACIER MOVEMENT
 GLACIER ADVANCES MELTING  GLACIER RETREATS MELTING SNOWFALL >

SNOWFALL <

 STATIONARY GLACIER SNOWFALL = MELTING DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

FASTEST

HOW DO GLACIERS ERODE?
Most powerful erosional agent because of their great size and weight Glaciers erode by: • Abrasion – wearing, grinding, scraping rock surface because rock fragments are frozen into the ice at the bottom (ROCK FLOUR) • Plucking – rock fragments loosened, picked up and carried by glaciers

EROSIONAL FEATURES
 Leaves parrallel scratches on bedrock  Striations - Grooves carved into the bedrock by pebbles and cobbles carried at the bottom of a glacier – can show direction of glacial movement  Polished Bedrock  Sediment - TILL - is angular to sub-round and NOT SORTED AND NOT LAYERED

-Unsorted Materialsall sizes mixed together. -Sediments are a bit more rough and angular than from other forms of erosion

Glacial Polish Smooth rock surfaces created as glaciers flow over bedrock.

Glacial Pavement….

ERRATIC – EVIDENCE OF GLACIER EROSION
 Ice carries the largest sediments  A boulder-sized rock dumped by a glacier is called an Erratic. The rock is usually of a different type that the surrounding rock…

VALLEY GLACIER EROSIONAL FEATURES
Mountain ranges that were scenic to begin with are now jagged, angular peaks GLACIERS MODIFY RIVER VALLEYS BY… V-SHAPE RIVER VALLEY INTO U-SHAPED GLACIATED VALLEYS

Craword Notch, NY

VALLEY GLACIER DEPOSITIONAL FEATURES
MORAINES – unsorted, un-layered pile of till There are many types of moraines  Lateral – till along side of glacier  Medial – 2 glaciers come together and the lateral moraines join in a single ridge  Terminal or End – farthest advance of glacier  Recessional – glacier retreats, pauses, deposits – will be parallel to terminal moraine

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MEDIAL AND LATERAL MORAINES TERMINAL MORAINE

TERMINAL MORAINE MARKS THE FARTHEST ADVANCE OF THE ICE

Kettle Lake Drumlins

Esker

Till

Moraine-dammed lake

as tw u O

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in la

Terminal Moraine

Glacial Stream

Long Island Ronkonkoma Terminal Moraine??? Harbor Hill Recessional Moraine