Process Safety Management

Kharil Ashidi B. Abdul Jabar Q-SHE-S Dept Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd.

What Is Process Safety Management Process Safety Management is the application of management principles and systems to the identification, understanding, and control of process hazards to protect employees, facility assets and the environment.

What Is Process Safety Management
14 Elements Application Employee Participation Process Safety Information Process Hazard Analysis Operating Procedures Employee Training Contractors 


Pre-Start up Safety Review Mechanical Integrity Hot Work (Non-routine Work Authorizations) Management of Change Incident Investigation Emergency Planning and Response Compliance Audits 


Technology .

Process Technology Process Technology describes the process and operation Understanding the hazards is the first step Consists of three parts    .

The 3 Parts of Process Technology  Hazards of Materials Process Design Basis Equipment Design Basis   .

evaluate.Process Hazards Analysis Process Hazards Analyses identify.orderly and methodical approaches .many people involved . and control hazards .

Procedures & Safe Practices  Provide clear understanding of operating parameters and limits for safe operation They explain the consequences of problems and the steps necessary to correct and or avoid them Developed and documented for each process   .

Technology  Changes may invalidate prior assessments All changes must be rigorously reviewed Sites must have procedures to manage changes.   .Management of Change .

release and possibly up to 15. system failures caused the tank to vent and a large cloud of gases was released and drifted onto the nearby densely populated area. with fatalities industry. India 1984 A large amount of water was put into a methyl isocyanate tank. ~2. The severity of this accident makes it the area.800 from the immediate thousands. worst recorded within the chemical industry.000 related deaths since. The resulting overpressure and related tank. since. estimated in the thousands.Technology Industrial Incident #1 Bhopal. .

Technology Industrial Incident #1 Contributing Factors:   plant modification/change .HAZOP not recognizing safety critical systems and their operability design codes training and competence   .

000 times without mishap. it goes ! .Technology Industrial Incident # 2 Oppau. The 4. Germany 1921 Two explosions at the BASF plant killed 430 and destroyed 700 homes. Tough stuff to set off. Blasting powder was being used to breakup storage piles of ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate. But when it goes.500 tons of the mixture exploded and left a crater 250 feet in diameter and 50 feet deep. This procedure had been used 16.

. .Toulouse Grande Paroisse  On Friday September 21.2001 at 10:15 am«.

Technology Industrial Incident # 2 Contributing Factor:  not recognizing hazards of materials .

Facilities .

Quality Assurance Quality Assurance ³bridges the gap´ between design and installation: fabrication delivery properly and parts meet specifications to the right location assembled and installed .

PrePre-Startup Safety Review Provides a final check for new or modified equipment to ensure the facilities are ³ safe to operate ³ .

.Mechanical Integrity Process related equipment that contains highly hazardous chemicals must be maintained from the time of design throughout the life of the facility. Mechanical integrity focuses on system integrity to contain hazardous materials.

Mechanical Integrity Deals with:  Maintenance  Training  Quality procedures and performance of employees control  Equipment tests and inspections. including predictive and preventative maintenance .

must receive appropriate review and authorization. including those within the ³documented´ process technology.Management of ³Subtle´ Changes Subtle Changes have led to catastrophic events! All process changes. but are not a replacement-inreplacement-in-kind. .

. The resulting massive vapor cloud explosion killed 28 workers.Facilities Industrial Incident # 5 Flixborough. England 1974 At the Nypro(UK) chemical facility. a large quantity of cyclohexane vapor was released when a 20 inch ³makeshift´ bypass pipe ruptured.

Facilities Industrial Incident # 5 Contributing Factors:      management of change procedures design codes maintenance procedures .position of occupied buildings emergency plan .recommissioning plant layout .

debate.Facilities Industrial Incident # 6 Chernobyl. . Ukraine 1984 Technicians at the power plant allowed the fourth reactor to fall to low power levels as part of a ³controlled experiment´. 31 workers were killed and the extent of lingering health effects has been significant and subject of It is now entombed. entombed. Explosions blew the top off the reactor building releasing radioactive material into the atmosphere for over 10 days. The reactor overheated causing a meltdown of the core.

Facilities Industrial Incident # 6 Contributing Factors:     management of change procedures equipment/facility design procedures and safe practices emergency shutdown plan .

Personnel .

Training qualification must be documented.Training and Performance  Trained employees are an absolute requirement.  . and be physically able. mentally alert and capable of using good judgment.

they are required to comply with same regulations and guidelines as industry /site! .Contractors For contractors working in and around highly hazardous material processes. or performing maintenance/repair on or near a covered process «««.

Incident Investigation & Reporting  Investigations are essential to improve performance The objective is to find the contributing factors and implement corrective actions(s) The degree of the investigation will depend on severity or potential   .

Personnel People are the essential ingredient: process experience knowledge and skill in managing Process Safety maintain minimum experience level and knowledge through personnel and organizational changes .Management of Change .

Emergency Planning & Response Planning and training for potential emergencies are essential for effective response .

Proper auditing must include positive and corrective feedback .Auditing Auditing must be used to assure that all elements of Process Safety Management are being implemented properly.

Personnel Industrial Incident # 3 Pasadena. followed by a series of further explosions and fires. Texas 1989 During maintenance work on a reactor settling leg. . The result was a massive vapor cloud explosion. a large release of flammable vapor occurred at the Phillips 66 chemical complex.

contractors positioning of occupied buildings .Personnel Industrial Incident # 3 Contributing Factors:  site and industry standards for maintenance not followed    training and competence work permit system .

For the next 90 minutes. the first BLEVE occurred. It started with a ruptured line and was made worse by failed safey systems and layout. . a series of BLEVEs followed as other LPG vessels violently exploded. Approximetly 500 people were killed and the facility was destroyed. Mexico 1984 A major fire and a series of catastrophic explosions occurred at the government owned and operated PEMEX LPG Terminal. After the intial release.Personnel Industrial Incident # 4 Mexico City.

Personnel Industrial Incident # 4 Contributing Factors:     plant layout .the positioning of vessels emergency isolation survivability of critical systems emergency plan and site access .

sg .Thank you very much Please contact for any questions Kharil Ashidi Tel: +6012 202 3381 E-mail:

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