Quiz # 1

1. The ³hole´ in the ozone layer is now known to be caused by CFCs used in ______ 2. The Beijing Protocol was signed in 2001 to regulate CFC emissions in the atmosphere T____ F______ 3. HCFC-22 contributes to both global warming HCFCand thinning of ozone and is now heavily used by the ________to make __________

The Rise of Industrial Society 
Harnessing new energy sources, linking modern society to carbon and steam (and eventually global warming).  James Watt and the invention of the steam engineengine1769.  Late 18th century, first concerns about ³smoke nuisance´

³Hell is a city much like London-a populous Londonand smoky city´  Charles Dickens Hard Times (1854)«´ a river that ran purple with ill-smelling dye¶ ill- .1853: more than 100 new tall chimneys a year in London.  18461846.to convey the noxious gases to such a height that they shall be so intermingled with the atmosphere as not to be injurious to health´ 1855.Making Taller Chimneys: Throw the Stuff Higher in the Air!  ³«.

Widespread Industrial Pollution  The waters of the river Calder could be used as grey ink in the 1860s. the waters of the Trent were lethal to all animal and plant life for a stretch of 130 miles. .  In 1936.  In the same decade children routinely amused themselves by setting fire to the waters of the Bradford Canal.

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.  1859-Oil City. More ancient carbon emissions into the atmosphere.The Rise of Oil  For centuries a black fluid bubbled to the surface. and weatherproofing teepees.  1824-salt drillers in Kentucky run out of town 1824because they hit oil and made a ³foul mess´. PA ³They¶ve struck oil´«.a liquid fossil 1859fuel millions of years in creation.  Rising expense and demand for whale oil. Skimmed off by Native Americans for medicines. dyes.

John D. ‡ Otto Daimler and Karl Benz. ‡ Internal combustion engine became single largest factor in making petroleum the most important energy source in the world. . Rockefeller the first billionaire. by 1889 developed new versions for automobiles. German inventors. Rockefeller and the Rise of Standard Oil ‡ Belgian Inventor in 1860 developed first internal combustion engine-Etiene Lenoir. ‡ made John D.

and not as many animal carcasses to dispose of. . fewer stables and manure pits.Automobiles: Solving One Problem (Horse Manure) and Creating Another (Global Warming) Street sweepers praised the automobile for making their job easier: less manure to pick up and cart.

Firestone Tire and Rubber joined forces to buy up rail and trolley lines in cities across the countries and then tear up the tracks.Forcing the Market: Eliminate Public Transportaton  General Motors. Standard Oil of California.  At the same time. public funds were used to build ³freeways´ because now everyone had to have a car .

Suburbunization of America made possible by the car  Huge expansion of suburbia after World War II  Made it necessary for everyone to have TWO cars .

For example. today's automobiles are about 75 percent recyclable. and using recycled steel helps reduce energy use and pollution . iron ore gets turned into steel. the Environment and Global Warming Environmental impacts start with mineral extraction and the production of the raw materials that go into the parts of a car.Automobiles. and on average. But steel can be recycled. which now accounts for most of the mass in vehicles.

if they are returned to a service station. Some degree of pollution is associated with all of these components. a parts store. for example) and copper (used for wiring) are also largely recycled. Plastics. which are mostly made from petroleum. or brought to a municipal hazardous waste facility. air pollution. much of it due to the energy consumption. such as aluminum (used in some engine parts and wheels. and releases of toxic substances that occur when automobiles are manufactured and distributed.    . The lead and acid in batteries are poisonous and dangerous. But batteries can be recycled. are more difficult to recycle.Other automobile components  Other metal components.

This contrasts with just nine million cars in China and 6 million in India.In 2002 there were 590 million cars in the world. There are 140 million cars in the United States and 55 million in Japan. . That is one for every ten people.

15% of the world·s people own 76% of the world·s cars. .

Designing our way out of the problem ³You know you are in a stagnant industry when the big product innovation of the past decade is more cup holders´ Hunter et al. 1999 .

95% moves the car. . 5% moves the driver.  Thus.  95% of the energy used to move the car. 1% of the energy consumed moves the driver.The Modern Car: The Efficiency Problem The Problem:  At least 80% of the fuel consumed is lost through exhaust and engine heat.

and the engine about 10x larger than is required for most driving.  The large engine is required to accelerate the heavy vehicle . The vehicle is about 20x heavier than the driver.

 .  Steamlining: make the underside as smooth as the top. glass. weight is neither´  Carbon fiber composites (carbon.  . Kevlar. but in a car.The Hyper Car: Amory Lovins Concept the problem is the use of steel ³Steel is a splendid material if weight is an unimportant or advantageous factor. and other fibers) can cut weight by half or a third.

140 lbs to 1.  Cuts the weight of a Ford Taurus from 3. Doubled-efficiency tires already on the Doubledmarket.  Can cut by half or more the power needed to move car and passengers.300 lbs .

 Currently expensive but more investment would bring the price down. like boats  Replace the current complex mechanical systems with solid state electronics and software.  Indy 500 cars are currently made of carbon fiber composites. Reduces the need for other components based on weight. and can withstand crashes with less injury. already used in other industries.  An immediate benefit would be that the twenty or so most frequent mechanical causes of breakdowns would no longer be components of the car at all .

. Big automakers start with two major disadvantages: 1) they are big and 2) they are automakers  Hypercars will more resemble computers with wheels than cars with chips.

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