‡ Piping is about designing, fabricating and constructing lines for conveying fluids.

‡ in industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids (liquids and gases) from one location to another.


Types of Piping Joints ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Weleded joints Threaded joints Flanged Joints Insulation Joints Expansion Joints .

Valves ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Gate valve Globe valve Plug valve Ball valve Butterfly valve Diaphragm valve Check valve Safety and relief valve .

PIPE SUPPORTS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Variable Spring hanger Constant Load spring Hanger Rigid Hangers Dynamic support Snubbers Constant load spring Rigid hanger Rigid support Variable spring hanger Dynamic support snubber .

nickel. aluminum based steel Wrought Carbon steel Cast iron Alloy steel .Pipe material metallic Non -metallic Non-ferrous ferrous iron Copper .

Mineral Wool. Organic Fibers. Some times Cast material like Cement Plaster or Plaster of Paris are also used. Cellular Material : which has closed void cells full or air . Glass Wool. Polystyrene (Thermocol). etc.INSULATION Hot Insulation Personnel Protection Insulation.Calcium Silicate. Cellular Glass (Foam Glass). Polyurethane Foam (PUF). Note stagnant air is a bad conductor. Cold Insulation Acoustic Insulation INSULATION MATERIAL Fibrous Material : which has large voids full of air between fibers .Cork. .

. material re-crystallizes and hence yielding continues without increasing load. ‡ Piping deflections are within the limits. : After slippage. Modes of failure Failure by general yielding Failure is due to excessive plastic deformation. ‡ Yielding at sub elevated temp.Pipe stress analysis Purpose ‡ Safety of piping and piping components ‡ Safety of connected equipment and supporting structure. This phenomenon is known as creep failure by fracture Body fails without undergoing yielding ‡ Brittle : Occurs in brittle materials ‡ Fatigue : Due to cyclic loading initially a small crack is developed which grows after each cycle and results in sudden failure. ‡ Yielding at elevated temp.:Body undergoes plastic deformation under slip action of grains.

g . e. ‡ Occasional load : These loads are present at infrequent intervals during plant operation. e. peak stresses cause no significant distortion. Primary stresses are not self-limiting. earthquake. wind. ‡ Secondary stresses : These are developed by the constraint of displacements of a structure.g. pressure and weight.Stress categories ‡ Primary stresses : These are developed by the imposed loading and are necessary to satisfy the equilibrium between external and internal forces and moments of the piping system. Secondary stresses are self-limiting. Peak stresses : Unlike loading condition of secondary stress which cause distortion.g. ‡ Classification of loads Primary loads ‡ Sustained load : These loads are expected to be present through out the plant operation. seismic anchor movements. . Peak stresses are the highest stresses in the region under consideration and are responsible for causing fatigue failure. and building settlement.thermal expansion. e. These displacements can be caused either by thermal expansion or by outwardly imposed restraint and anchor point movements. etc Expansion loads These are loads due to displacements of piping.

. Steam pipes run at very high temperature and the hot pipes expand. Also there should be enough flexibility in these pipe routingso that high loads are not transferred to the nozzles of Turbine or Pumps. These pipelines are call the CRITICAL PIPING. We have to built in flexibility in the high temperature pipe routing so that the expansion force is absorbed within the piping. First the pipe material selection for such piping is very important as it has to withstand the high pressure and may be also high temperature. As these pipes carry the main system fluid of the power plant. Very special care are taken for design of these piping. and routed at beginning of the overall plant layout. These pipes carries the main cycle steam and water of the steam power plant.CRITICAL PIPING In Power plant there are some piping which carries steam at high pressure and temperature. And also there are piping which carries water at High pressure. they are given the right of way.

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