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ORGAN

TRANSPLANT

A presentation by:
Lily Zabrina Zainal Akmar
Mariah Saidi
Fathin Nabilah Abdul Rashid
• started as early as year 300 , the middle
History 
ages , by Cosmos and Damian .

• French surgeon Alexis Carrel , began to


experiment with the transplantation of
arteries and veins , was the first to
identify the problem of rejection . Won
Nobel Prize in 1912

• 1954 , Dr . Joseph Murray performed the first


successful transplant of a kidney
between identical twins . 1962 , first
successful transplantation of a kidney
from a dead body to a living one .
Conditions
• For organ transplant:
 - Organ donors may be living , or brain dead .
 - Brain dead = donor must have received an
injury to the part of the brain that
controls heartbeat and breathing . Breathing
is maintained via artificial sources , which ,
in turn , maintains heartbeat .
• For tissue transplant :
 - The donor can be either living , brain - dead
or deceased ( cardiac dead ) . Tissue may be
recovered from donors who are cardiac dead -
up to 24 hours past the cessation of
heartbeat . Unlike organs , most tissues can be
preserved and stored for up to 5 years .
Examples….
§ Thoracic organs
~Heart (Deceased-donor only)

~Lung (Deceased-donor and Living-Donor)

§ Abdominal organs
~Kidney (Deceased-donor and Living-Donor)

~Liver(Deceased-donor and Living-Donor)

~Pancreas(Deceased-donor only)

~Intestine (Deceased-donor and Living-Donor)

~Stomach(Deceased-donor only)

§ Tissues, cells, fluids


~Hand(Deceased-donor only)

~Cornea(Deceased-donor only)

~Islets of Langerheans (Pancreas Islet Cells) (Deceased-

donor and Living-Donor)


~Bone Marrow (Living-Donor and Autograft)
Types of Transplant

• 1) Autograft
-Transplant of tissue to the same
person ( within one ’ s own body )
- Sometimes an autograft is done to

remove the
tissue and then treat it or the

person , before
returning it


Skin Graft
• transplantation of skin .
• to treat
extensive wounding or trauma , bu
rns , or diseases ( necrotizing
fasciitis , purpura fulminans )

Necrotizing
fasciitis Walter Yeo is a WWI , loss of both his upper and lower
eyelids.He is
Third degree burns considered one of the first plastic surgery patients,

treated by Sir
Harold Gilles in 1917.

Skin
graft to
treat
burns
By Pass
• CABG
• a healthy blood vessel from
another part of the body is
taken and make a detour around
the blocked part of the
coronary artery :
• artery from the chest wall , a
piece of a long vein from the
leg
Blood
• Autologous blood donation .  Patients
can donate and store their own
blood in advance . This stored blood
will be used if a blood transfusion
is necessary .
• 2)Allograft
-An allograft is a transplant of an

organ or tissue between two


genetically non-identical members of
the same species
-When organs or tissues are

transplanted from a donor to a


genetically identical recipient
(identical twin),it is termed
Isograph . In this case,there is no
case of rejection,no immune response
is triggered.
• 3)Xenograft
-Transplants occur from one species to

another.
Eg: porcine heart valve transplants

-Its extremely dangerous as there is

non-compatibility,risk of rejection, and


disease carried in the tissue.
Islamic Views
• Islamic Jurisprudence Academy
( Organization of Islamic Conference )

 ordinance 4/1,dated 11.02.1988 :


 organ or tissue transplantation
within one’s own body is permissible on
condition that its benefits will be more
than its harms, and it should be done
with the purpose of recovering a defect
or illness which causes the patient any
biological or psychological
disturbances.

Why is it Permissible?
because it is a form of treatment for a medical condition
consistent with the objectives of the Syari’ah (maqasid Syari’ah)
that privileges human welfare and interest, as well as the
preservation of human life
However, the transplant cannot bring harm to the donor.
“a harm cannot be removed in a way that leads to another type of
harm.”
ۡ َ ‫ل ن ۡف ۢسا بغ ۡير ن ۡفس أ َ ۡو فَسا ۬د فى ٱ ۡلأ‬
 ‫ض‬
ِ ‫ر‬ ِ ٍ َ ٍ َ ِ َِ َ َ َ َ َ‫ت‬
‫مي ً۬عا‬
ِ ‫ج‬ ‫س‬
َ ‫لّنا‬in
َ mischief
“Unless it be for murder or for spreading ‫لٱ‬
َ theَ ‫قَت‬land
‫ما‬ ‫َ َڪ‬ ‫ف‬
َ ّ –‫أن‬it
would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life,
it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people.” (al-
maidah,ayat 32)
Is it considered as changin our
natural characteristics?
Should’nt we just accept our illness?

• We must accepts Allah’s qada’ and qadar


• Nonetheless, we are also required to try
and find suitable solutions to the
problems we face . “ikhtiyar”
• We must find cures for our illnesses, and
only leave the ultimate success or
otherwise to Allah
Hadith S.W.T.
Rasulullah
S.A.W:

"Tidaklah Allah menurunkan suatu penyakit, melainkan Dia juga


menurunkan ubat
baginya."
In fact,Islam encourages organ
donation….
• highly encouraged
• principles that are universal and
humanitarian.
• rahmah i.e. to show compassion, helping
one another, and making (jariah)
donations.
• Islam also emphasizes ta’awun (helping
one another).