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Two particular hazardous wastes that have achieved
national prominence:
R Dioxins

§ Dioxins Ȃ are found as over 20 different isomers of a

basic chlorodioxin structure.
§ PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyl) Ȃ refers to class of
organic chemicals produced by the chlorination of a
biphenyl molecule.
PAǯS designates a waste material to be
hazardous in two ways:
¦ By its presence on PA developed list
¦ By evidence that the waste exhibits
ignitable, corrosive, reactive, or toxic
PA has designated five hazardous waste categories:
R Specific type of wastes from nonspecific sources.
R Specific type of wastes from specific sources.
R Any commercial chemical product or intermediate, off
specification product, or residue that has been
identified as an acute hazardous waste.
R Any commercial chemical product or intermediate, off
specification product, or residue that has been
identified as an hazardous waste.
R Characteristic wastes, which are wastes not specifically
identified elsewhere, that exhibit properties of
ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity.
V ½   

 ½   ½½Ȃ
directing the PA to establish hazardous waste


½C½A and HSWA were enacted to regulate the

generation and disposal of hazardous wastes.
V This system is an attempt to track hazardous
waste from its generation point( cradle) to
itǯs ultimate disposal point (grave).
V The system requires generators to attach a
manifest form to their hazardous waste
V Àenerators of hazardous waste are the first link in the
cradle-to-grave chain of hazardous waste
V The regulatory requirements for hazardous waste
generators include:
1. obtaining an PA identification number (ID)
2. handling of hazardous waste before transport
3. manifesting of hazardous waste
4. record keeping and reporting
V Transporter of hazardous waste are the
critical link between the generator and the
ultimate offsite treatment, storage, or
disposal of hazardous waste.
V This was been developed jointly by PA and
the DOT to avoid contradictory
requirements coming from two agencies.
V Treatment, storage, and disposal facilities are the last
link in the cradle-to-grave hazardous waste
management systems.
V 2
   any method, technique, or process,
including neutralization, designed to change the
physical, chemical, or biological character or
composition of any hazardous waste so as to neutralize
it or render it nonhazardous or less hazardous; to
recover it; make it safer to transport, store, or dispose
of; or make it amenable for recovery, storage, or
volume reduction.
  the holding of hazardous waste for a
temporary period, at the end of which the
hazardous waste is treated, disposed or stored
V i 
 the discharge, deposit, conjunction,
dumping, spilling, leaking, or placing, of any solid
waste or hazardous waste into or any land or water
so that any constituent thereof may enter the
environment or be emitted into the air or
discharged into any waters including ground
V Section 3004 of HSWA sets restriction
on land disposal of specific wastes,
commonly called the Dzland bandz or
   

V Is system includes an underground
storage tank, connected piping,
underground ancillary equipment
and containment system if any.


   ½of 1980,
better known as DzSuperfunddz, became law Dz to provide
for liability, compensation, cleanup and emergency
response for hazardous substances released into the
environment and the cleanup inactive hazardous
waste disposal
The four major provisions of the law establish:
- A fund (the Superfund) to pay for investigations and
remedies at sites where the responsible people cannot
be found or will not voluntarily pay;
- A priority list of abandoned or inactive hazardous
waste sites for cleanup (the national priority list);
- The mechanism for action at abandoned or inactive
sites (the national contingency plan);
- Liability for those responsible for cleaning up.
 greatly expanded the money available to remediate
Superfund sites.

 is a procedure for ranking uncontrolled
hazardous waste sites in terms of the potential
threat based upon containment of the hazardous
substance, route of release, characteristics and
amount of the substances and likely target.
 provides detailed direction on the action to
be taken at a hazardous waste site, including initial
assessment to determine if an emergency or
imminent threat exist, creation of emergency
response actions, and a method to rank sites and
establish priority for future action.
V A remedial investigation includes
the development of detailed plans
that address the following items:


V A logical priority in managing hazardous waste
would be to:
1. ½educe the amount of hazardous wastes
generated in the first place.
2. Stimulate Dzwaste exchangedz.
3. ½ecycle metals, the energy content, and the
other useful resources contained in hazardous
4. Detoxify and neutralize liquid hazardous waste
streams by chemical and biological treatment.
u. ½educe the volume of waste sludge
generated in term for by dewatering.
6. Destroy combustible hazardous waste in
special high temperature incinerators
equipped with proper pollution control and
monitoring systems.
7. Stabilize or solidify sludge and ash from items
five and six to reduce metals.
8. Dispose of remaining treated residues in
specially designed landfills.
V The key elements necessary for the success
of a waste minimization program include
- Top-level organizational commitment
- Financial resources
- Technical resources
- Appropriate organization, goals and
V An important first step in establishing a strategy for
waste minimization is to conduct a waste audit. The
audit should proceed stepwise:
1. Identify waste streams
2. Identify sources
3. stablish priority of waste streams for waste
minimization activity
4. Screen alternatives
u. Implement
6. Track
7. valuate progress
V The material used should be recycled, reused or
rse of enzymes (or natural or genetically engineered
microorganisms) to eliminate hazardous substances (found
in sewage, waste streams and sludge, and soils) or to
convert them into less hazardous or useful forms.
Chemical detoxification is a treatment technology,
either employed as the sole treatment procedure or used
to reduce the hazard of a particular waste prior to
transport, incineration and burial.
Chemical procedure cannot magically make a toxic
chemical disappear from the matrix (wastewater, sludge,
etc.) in which it is found but can only convert into
another form.
The spectrum of chemical methods includes:

V Neutralization. Solutions are neutralized by a simple

application of the law of mass balance to bring about an
acceptable pH.
V Oxidation. The cyanide molecule is destroyed by oxidation.
Chlorine is the oxidizing agent most frequently used.
Oxidation must be conducted under alkaline conditions to
avoid the generation of hydrogen cyanide gas.
V Precipitation. Metals are often removed from plating rinse
waters by precipitation. This is a direct application of the
solubility product principle. By raising the pH with lime or
caustic, the solubility of the metal is reduced and the metal
hydroxide precipitate.
V Carbon Adsorption. Adsorption is a mass transfer process
in which gas vapors or chemicals insulation are held to a
solid by intermolecular forces. Activated carbon, molecular
sieves, silica gel and activated alumina are the most
common adsorbent.
V Distillation. This is the separation of more volatile
materials from less volatile ones by a process of
vaporization and condensation.
V Ion xchange. Metals and ionized organic chemicals can be
recovered by ion exchange. In ion exchange, the waste
stream containing the ion to be removed is passed through
a bed of resin. In exchange process, ions of like charged are
removed from the resin surface in exchange for ions in
V lectrodialysis. The electrodialysis unit uses a membrane to
selectively retain or transmit specific molecules. The
membranes are thin sheets of ion exchange resin reinforced
by a synthetic fiber backing.
V ½everse Osmosis. Osmosis is the spontaneous transport of
a solvent from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution
across an ideal semipermeable membrane that impedes
passage of the solute but allows the solvent to flow.
V Solvent xtraction. It is also called liquid extraction and
liquid-liquid extraction. Contaminants can be removed
from a waste stream using liquid-liquid extraction if the
wastewater is contacted with a solvent having greater
solubility for the target contaminants than the wastewater.
The contaminants will tend to migrate from the wastewater
into the solvent.
V Incineration. In an incinerator, chemicals are decomposed
by oxidation at high temperature (800°C or greater). The
waste, or at least its hazardous components, must be
combustible to be destroyed.
V Products of Combustion. The percentages of carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, halogens and
phosphorus in the waste, as well as the moisture content,
need to be known to determine stoichiometric combustion
air requirements and to predict combustion gas flow and
composition. Actual incineration conditions generally
require excess oxygen to maximize the formation of
products of complete combustion (POCs) and minimize
the formation of products of incomplete combustion
V Design Considerations. The most important factors for
proper incinerator design and operation are combustion
temperature, combustion gas residence time, and the
efficiency of mixing the waste with combustion air and
auxiliary fuel.
V Incinerator Types. Two technologies dominate the
incineration field: liquid injection and rotary kiln
incinerators. Over 90% of all incineration facilities use one
of these technologies. Of these, more than 90% are liquid
injection units. Less commonly used incinerators include
fluidized beds and starved air/pyrolysis systems.
V Air Pollution Control(APC). Typical APC equipment on an
incinerator will include an afterburner, liquid scrubber,
demister and find particulate control device.
V Afterburners are used to control emission of unburned organic by-
products by providing additional combustion volume at an elevated
V Scrubbers are used to physically removed particulate matter, acid
gases and residual organic compounds from the combustion gas
Metals are not destroyed in the incineration process. Some
are volatilized and then collected in the air pollution
control device. The large liquid droplets that escape
from the scrubber or captured in a mist collector. The
final stage in gas cleaning is to removed the fine
particles that remain. lectrostatic precipitators have
been used for this system.
V Deep Well Injection. It consists of pumping wastes into
geologically secure formation. The general technical
requirements of a suitable hazardous waste injection well
1. A saline-water-bearing formation that is large enough and
permeable enough to accept the waste.
2. Qverlying and underlying strata (confining layers) that are
sufficiently impermeable to confine the waste to the injection
3. The absence of solution-collapse features, faults, joints and
abandoned wells that might permit the escape of the waste.
V Land Treatment. It is sometimes called     of
the waste. In this practice, waste was incorporated with soil
material in the manner of fertilizer or manure might be.
Microorganisms in the soil degraded the organic fraction of
the waste.
V Secure Landfill. The use of land for the disposal of
hazardous waste is a major option for the foreseeable
future. The incinerator ash, scrubber bottoms and the
results of biological, chemical and physical treatment leave
residues of up to 20% of the original mass. This residue
must be secured in an economical fashion. At this juncture,
the secure landfill is the only option.
V Landfill Siting. In siting hazardous waste landfill, the
forming considerations are air quality, groundwater quality,
surface water quality and subsurface migration of gases and
leachates. Aside from the socio political aspects, the last
three components are the major factors to be considered in
siting the landfill.
V Air quality must be considered to prevent adverse affects to the air
cause by volatilization, gas generation, gas migration and wind
dispersal of landfill hazardous waste.
V Landfill Construction. A secure landfill means, in essence,
that no leachate or other contaminant can escape from the
fill and adversely affect the surface water or ground water.
Leakage from the site is not acceptable during or after
operations. Neither is any external or internal
displacement, which could be brought about by slumping,
sliding and flooding. Waste must not be allowed to migrate
from the site.
PAǯs Àroundwater ½emediation Procedure
* Preliminary Assesment (PA). It is the first step in
identifying the potential for contamination from a
particular site. The primary objectives of the PA are to
determine the contaminants has been released to the
environment, if there is immediate danger to persons living
or working near the site, and whether a site inspection is
* Site inspection. It requires sampling to determine the types
of hazardous substances present to identify the extent of
contamination and its migration. The actual site inspection
includes preparation of a work plan and an on-site safety
* Well Systems. It serves as an example of a common
remedial process for treating contaminated groundwater.
Well systems manipulate the subsurface hydraulic gradient
through injection or withdrawal of water. They are
designed to control the movement of the groundwater
directly and of the subsurface pollutants indirectly.