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Because Marketing Research is part
of Marketing we should
understand:
 What is marketing?
 What is the marketing concept?
 What is marketing strategy?
What is Marketing?
 Marketing has been defined by the M as an
organizational function and a set of processes
for creating, communicating and delivering
value to customers and for managing
customer relationships in ways that benefit
the organization and its stakeholders.
What is the Marketing Concept?

ͻ The Marketing Concept is a business


philosophy that holds that the key to
achieving organizational goals consists of the
company͛s being more effective than
competitors in creating, delivering, and
communicating customer value to its chosen
markets.
What is Marketing átrategy?

 Marketing átrategy consists of selecting a


segment of the market as the company͛s
target market and designing the proper ͞mix͟
of the product/service, price, promotion, and
distribution system to meet the wants and
needs of the consumers within the target
market.
We need Marketing Research
to:
 Make the ͞right͟ decisions to
 Implement marketing
 Practice the marketing concept and
 Make the right decisions to select the right
marketing strategy
What is Marketing Research?
(Burns and Bush Definition)

ͻ Marketing research is the process of


designing, gathering, analyzing, and reporting
information that may be used to solve a
specific marketing problem.
What is Marketing Research? M
definition

ͻ It is the function that links the consumer,


customer, and public to the marketer through
information ʹ
ͻ information used to identify and define
marketing opportunities and problems;
generate, refine, and evaluate marketing
actions; monitor marketing performance; and
improve the understanding of marketing as a
process.
Redefining Marketing Research
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Market Research vs. Marketing
Research

ͻ Market research: the ͞systematic gathering,


recording, and analyzing of data with respect
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The Role of Marketing Research
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What is the purpose of Marketing
Research?

ͻ To link the consumer to the marketer by


providing information that can be used in
making marketing decisions
sses of Marketing Research
 We can use Marketing Research to:
& Identify & valuate Opportunities
& nalyze Market áegments
& áelect Target Markets
& Plan & Implement Marketing Mixes
& nalyze Marketing Performance
& Performance Monitoring Research
Classification of Marketing
Research
 


  
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 Classification of Marketing Research

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 áample of Marketing Research Jobs
Determining When to Conduct
Marketing Research
 Time constraints
 vailability of data
 ature of the decision
 Benefits versus costs
Determining When to Conduct
Marketing Research
  
 

 


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Potential Value of a Marketing Research ffort
áhould xceed Its stimated Costs
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MRKTI  RáRC PROCáá
. Define the Problem and Research Objectives:
 exploratory research
 descriptive research
 causal research.
2. Developing Research Plan:
 Data sources
& secondary
& primary data
 Research approaches
& observational
& focus group research
& survey research
& behavioral data
& xperimental
MRKTI  RáRC PROCáá
(CO T.)
3. Developing Research Plan (cont.)
 Research instruments-questionnaires
& closed-ended
& open-ended
& mechanical
 sampling plan:
& probability
& non-probability.
 contact methods:
& mail survey
& telephone survey
& personal interviews(arranged or intercept).
& Internet
MRKTI  RáRC PROCáá
(CO T.)
4. Data Collection:
 Interviewer errors
 Response errors
5. Data nalysis:
 Quantitative tools-multivariate techniques
6. Present findings:
 Frequency counts
 nalysis of statistical results
 Recommendations
 Managerial Implications
7.Final research report
Characteristics of ood Marketing
research
 ácientific method:
& ypothesis testing
 Research creativity:
& Innovative research
 Multiple methods:
& áources of better information
 Interdependence of models and data
 Value and cost of information:
& Value of information
 ealthy skepticism:
& ssumptions
 thical marketing
 Overcoming Barriers:
  narrow conception of research:
& áome managers think it is a fact finding operations
 sneven caliber of marketing researchers
 Late and occasional erroneous findings:
& áome managers do not trust the findings
 Personality differences:
& Line and staff people
MRKTI  DCIáIO ásPPORT
ááTM
MDáá is a coordinated collection of data with
supporting software by which an organization
gathers and interprets relevant information. It
includes internal and external information,
state of the art data base approach, application
models(call plan, detailer, brandaid, mediac,
geolone, promoter, adcad, cover story), user
friendly computer language, graphic features.
a  
   

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BáIC Vá PPLID RáRC
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Research that is conducted to:
& expand the boundaries of knowledge
& verify the acceptability of a given theory, or
& learn more about a certain concept
The findings usually do not have immediate implications for
marketing practice.

  

Research that is conducted to provide information to:
& solve a real-life marketing problem, or
& make decisions about particular courses of marketing
action
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Basic Research

   
   
       



  
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pplied Research
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ácientific Method
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Identifying and valuating
Opportunities
xamples
 Mattel Toys investigates desires for play
experiences
 ome cooking is on the decline. Purchase
of precooked home replacement meals is
on the rise.
 umber of investors trading stock on the
Internet is growing.
nalyze Market áegments and áelect
Target Markets
xamples
 Cadillac investigates buyers͛ demographic
characteristics
 MTV, monitoring demographic trends, learns the
ispanic audience is growing rapidly
 áears learns women, age 25-54 with average
household income of $38,000, are core customers.
Targets this market with "The ood Life at a reat
Price. uaranteed. áears."
Plan and Implement
a Marketing Mix
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nalyze Marketing Performance

 This year͛s market share is compared


to last year͛s.
 Did brand image change after new
advertising?
Performance-monitoring Research

 Research that regularly provides


feedback for evaluation and control
 Indicates things are or are not going as
planned
 Research may be required to explain
why something ͞went wrong͟
Research designs
 ͞  research design is the specification of
methods and procedures for acquiring the
information needed. It is the overall
operational pattern or framework of the
project that stipulates what information is to
be collected from which sources by which
procedures͟
- by reen and Tull
Features of good design
 Flexible
 ppropriate
 fficient
 conomical
 Minimal biasness
 Maximum reliability of data
Important concepts relating to
research design
 Dependant and independent variables
 xtraneous variable
 xperimental and control groups
 Research hypothesis
 xperimental and control groups
 Treatments
 experiment
Types of research designs


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xploratory study
 Focus is on discovery of ideas. .g research on
declining sales in any org.
 Based on secondary data that is readily
available.
 It does not have a formal and rigid design.
 lso terms as formulative research studies.
 Literature surveys- it is the simple method of
formulating research problem. for exp.
Research in soft drinks company.
 xperience surveys- individuals with expertise,
knowledge, and ideas about research subject
may be questioned.
Descriptive research design
 Concerned with describing the characteristics
of an individual or of a group
 Rigid and formal
 The objective of such a study is to answer
͞who, what, when, where, and how" of the
subject under investigation.
 Well structured, complex.
 Cross sectional studies- two types
. Field studies
2. áurveys
The basic difference between these two is the
greater scope of the survey and greater
depth of the field study. áuch studies are
done in life situations like communities ,
schools, factories, organizations, and
institutions.
 Longitudinal studies- are based on panel data
and panel methods. a panel is a sample of
respondents who are interviewed and then
reinterviewed from time to time. Panel
usually remains constant.
Causal studies or experimentation
designs
 Causal design investigates the cause and
effect relationship between two or more
variables.
 Method of agreement-
͞when two or more cases of a given
phenomenon have one and only one
condition in common, then that condition
may be regarded as the cause of the
phenomenon.͟
sses of experimentation
 Product design
 Package design
 Pricing policies
 Promotion policies
 Distribution policies
TICL Iáásá I MRKTI 
RáRC
Is this thical?
.  research company decides to email
prospective respondents͛ telling them that if
they respond in the next 24 hours, they will
receive a valuable prize if they take part in a
survey.

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Is this thical?
2. t end of an interview, respondent is asked
to provide names and telephone numbers of
others he or she thinks should take part in
the survey.

i   

 

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Is this thical?
3. door
door--to-
to-door salesman finds that by telling
people that she is conducting a survey, they
are more likely to listen to her sales pitch.

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Is this thical?
4. The introduction of a mail questionnaire
says ͞it will only take a few minutes to
complete." But pretests have shown that 5
minutes are needed.

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Is this thical?
5. Telephone interviewers are instructed to
assure the respondent of confidentiality only
if the respondent asks about it.

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Is this thical?
6.  client asks to inspect the completed
questionnaires to assess their validity. The
researcher suspects that the client just
wants to find out what specific respondents
said about the client.

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Is this thical?
7. In the appendix of the final report, the
researcher lists names of all survey
respondents with a tick beside those who
indicated agreement to be contacted by the
client's sales people.

i  
  

thical Issues with Online áurveys

 ápam surveys ͙ |



 Opt
Opt--In vs. Opt
Opt--Out


T Ká