in a systematic fashion.Š Š Š Š A database designer initially represent high-level database design that is understood by the users and then translate the requirements into lower levels of the design A high level data model serves the database designer by providing a conceptual framework in which to specify. by applying the concepts of the chosen data model. and a database structure that fulfills these requirement Initial Phase: ƒ the database designer needs to interact extensively with domain experts and users to carry out this task ƒ The outcome of this phase is a specification or user requirements Conceptual Design: ƒ Next. translates these requirements into conceptual schema of the database ƒ The schema developed at the conceptual-design phase provides a detailed overview of the enterprise 2 . the data requirements of the database users. designer.

Physical features of the databse are specified. ƒ The implementation data model is typically the relational data model. and this step typically consists of mapping the conceptual schema defined using the entity-relationship model ƒ Physical-design phase. These features include the form of file organization and the internal storage structures 3 .The process of moving from an abstract data model to the implementation of the database proceeds in two steps: ƒ The logical design phase ² The designer maps the high-level conceptual schema onto the implementation data model of the database system that will be used.

where. Data modeling is sometimes called database modeling because a data model is eventually implemented as a database. structure. and when data are used or changed in an information system. Data modeling is a technique for organizing and documenting a system·s data. It is sometimes called information modeling. but these techniques do not show the definition.Data flow diagram and various processing logical techniques show how. 4 . and relationships within the data.

Š Š Š The entity relationship model (E-R) was developed to facilitate database design by allowing specification of an enterprise schema that represents the overall logical structure of a database The E-R model is very useful in mapping the meanings and interactions of real-world enterprises onto a conceptual schema The E-R model employs three basic notations: ƒ Entity Set ƒ Relationship sets and ƒ Attributes 5 .

computer screens. analysis. the characteristics of data captured during data modeling are crucial in the design of databases. and printed reports. The goal is to provide a rich data resource that might support any type of information inquiry. Š Second. programs. data rather than processes are the most complex aspects of many modern information systems and hence require a central role in structuring system requirements. 6 .Developers believe that a data model is the most important part of the information system requirements because: Š First. and summarization.

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used or deleted. data being stored. The actual model is frequently call an Entity Relationship Diagram(ERD) because it depicts data in terms of the entities and relationships described by the data. There are several notations for data modeling. They also do not imply how data is implemented created. They should not be read like data flow diagrams or flowcharts. 8 . ERD depict data at rest. modified.Š Š ERD do not depict flow or processing.

Synonyms include Entity Type and Entity Class For any given entity.Entity An entity is anything. about which we want to store data. real or abstract. the real world will contain multiple occurrences of that entity. objects events or location in the business environment Entity Name 9 . Most entities correspond to persons.

Exchange Number .Middle Initial Address .Number Within Exchange Date of Birth Gender Race Major Grade Point Average 10 .Entity : Student STUDENT Name . property and field e.Attributes: An attribute is a descriptive property or characteristics of an entity.g.Last Name .Area Code .City .First Name .Country .Postal Code Phone Number .State or Province . Synonyms include element.Street Address .

Entity : Name Attribute .Last name First Name Middle Name Domain : Each attribute of an entity set has a particular value. E.g. Or The domain of an attribute defines what values an attribute can legitimately take on 11 .Compound Attributes: is one that actually consists of more primitive attributes . Synonyms include Concatenated attribute. composite attribute. The set of possible values that a given attribute can have is called its domain. Composite Attribute etc.

A key is an attribute. SECONDARY KEY is an attribute or combination of attributes that may not be a candidate key but that classifies the entity set on a particular characteristic. that assumes a unique value for each entity instance CANDIDATE KEY is a candidate to become the primary identifier of instances of an entity. ALTERNATE KEY : Any candidate key that is not selected to become the primary key is called an alternate key. or a group of attributes. 12 .

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A relationship is a natural business association that exists between one or more entities. The relationship may represent an event that links the entities or merely a logical affinity that exists between the entities. 14 .

cardinality must be defined in bot directions for e ery relations i . bidirectional 15 .Car i alit efi es t e i i and maximum number f ccurrences f ne entit t at may be related t a single ccurrence f t e t er entity. Because all relati ns i s are bidirecti nal.

There are three general possibilities : One-to-one(1:1) : For one occurrence of the first entity there can exist only one related occurrence of the second entity and vice versa One-to-Many (1:M or M:1) : For one occurrence of one entity there can exist many related occurrences of a second entity Many to Many (M:M) : For one occurrence of the first entity.All Relationships are further described by words or symbols that indicate the number of occurrences of one entity that can exist for a single occurrence of the related entity and vice versa. there can exist many related occurrences of the second entity and for one occurrence of the second entity there can exist many occurrences of the first entity 16 .

The degree of a relationship is the number of entities that participate in the relationship. 17 .

A recursive relationship is a relationship that exists between different instances of the same entity 18 .

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