A Strangely Attractive Topic
Term comes from the ancient Greek city of Magnesia, at which many natural magnets were found. We now refer to these natural magnets as lodestones (also spelled loadstone; lode means to lead or to attract) which contain magnetite, a natural magnetic material Fe3O4. Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD Roman) wrote of a hill near the river Indus that was made entirely of a stone that attracted iron.
Chinese as early as 121 AD knew that an iron rod which had been brought near one of these natural magnets would acquire and retain the magnetic property«and that such a rod when suspended from a string would align itself in a north-south direction. Use of magnets to aid in navigation can be traced back to at least the eleventh century.
Basically, we knew the phenomenon existed and we learned useful applications for it. We did not understand it.
he discovered that motion of a magnet toward or away from a circuit could produce the same effect. Michael Faraday discovered that a momentary current existed in a circuit when the current in a nearby circuit was started or stopped Shortly thereafter. the Science
Not until 1819 was a connection between electrical and magnetic phenomena shown.Finally. Danish scientist Hans Christian Oersted observed that a compass needle in the vicinity of a wire carrying electrical current was deflected! In 1831.
Let This Be a Lesson!
Joseph Henry (first Director of the Smithsonian Institution) failed to publish what he had discovered 6-12 months before Faraday
Faraday and Henry showed that electric currents could be produced by moving magnets
.The Connection is Made
SUMMARY: Oersted showed that magnetic effects could be produced by moving electrical charges.
A Sheep in a Cow Suit?
All magnetic phenomena result from forces between electric charges in motion.
Looking in More Detail
Ampere first suggested in 1820 that magnetic properties of matter were due to tiny atomic currents All atoms exhibit magnetic effects Medium in which charges are moving has profound effects on observed magnetic forces
.For most of our discussions. we will assume the medium is empty space. which is a reasonable approximation of air in this context.
2.Top Ten List
What We Will Learn About Magnetism
1. 4. 5. 3. While magnetized. temporary magnets act like permanent magnets. Like poles repel. There are North Poles and South Poles. Magnetic forces act at a distance. unlike poles attract.
. Magnetic forces attract only magnetic materials.
A coil of wire with an electric current flowing through it becomes a magnet.
. A changing magnetic field induces an electric current in a conductor. 7. Putting iron inside a current-carrying coil increases the strength of the electromagnet.Top Ten continued
.Top Ten Continued
9. but when it is moving perpendicular to the field it experiences a force perpendicular to both the field and the direction of motion. 10. A charged particle experiences no magnetic force when moving parallel to a magnetic field. A current-carrying wire in a perpendicular magnetic field experiences a force in a direction perpendicular to both the wire and the field.
each piece will have a North pole and a South pole. each of the smaller pieces will have a North pole and a South pole. each piece will again have a North pole and a South pole. No matter how small the pieces of the magnet become. If you take a bar magnet and break it into two pieces. we say that the magnetic field lines leave the North end of a magnet and enter the South end of a magnet. By convention.For Every North. There is a South
Every magnet has at least one north pole and one south pole. If you take one of those pieces and break it into two.
So far.No Monopoles Allowed
It has not been shown to be possible to end up with a single North pole or a single South pole. which is a monopole ("mono" means one or single.
. none have been detected.
Note: Some theorists believe that magnetic monopoles may have been made in the early Universe. thus one pole).
they have a magnitude and a direction!
. and it is the magnetic field which exerts a force on any other charge moving through it.that is.
Magnetic fields are vector quantities«.Magnets Have Magnetic Fields
We will say that a moving charge sets up in the space around it a magnetic field.
Magnitude of the B-vector is proportional to the force acting on the moving charge. and the angle between v and the B-field.
.000 G). Unit is the Tesla or the Gauss (1 T = 10. the magnitude of its velocity.Defining Magnetic Field Direction
Magnetic Field vectors as written as B Direction of magnetic field at any point is defined as the direction of motion of a charged particle on which the magnetic field would not exert a force. magnitude of the moving charge.
Scientists Can Be Famous. Too!
The Concept of ³Fields´
Michael Faraday realized that .
A magnet has a ¶magnetic field· distributed throughout the surrounding space
and spread out where it is weak. For instance. and of course.They are defined as follows.
. the magnetic force is strongest near the poles where they come together. Field lines converge where the magnetic force is strong. in a compact bar magnet or "dipole." field lines spread out from one pole and converge towards the other. If at any point on such a line we place an ideal compass needle. which stays horizontal) then the needle will always point along the field line. free to turn in any direction (unlike the usual compass needle.Magnetic Field Lines
Magnetic field lines describe the structure of magnetic fields in three dimensions.
Field Lines Around a Magnet
Field Lines Around a Doughnut Magnet
Field Lines Around a Bar Magnet
Field Lines Around a Magnetic Sphere
Field Lines of Repelling Bars
Field Lines of Attracting Bars
This explains the ¶action at a distance·. say of a compass.
.Action at a Distance Explained
Although two magnets may not be touching. they still interact through their magnetic fields.
curl them in the direction of the magnetic field. This force will bend the path of the moving charge appropriately.
.Force on the Charge
Right Hand Rule! Put your fingers in the direction of motion of the charge. Your thumb now points in the direction of the magnetic force acting on the charge.
Watch the Bending Fingers!
QuickTime and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Lawrence and M. Livingston at UC Berkeley Uses electric fields to accelerate and magnetic fields to guide particles at very high speeds
Developed in 1931 by E. S.
How a Cyclotron Works
Pair of metal chambers shaped like a pillbox cut along one of its diameters (cleverly referred to as ´Dµs) and slightly separated Ds connected to alternating current Ions injected near gap Ions are accelerated as long as they remain ´in stepµ with alternating electric field
. a currentcarrying wire will experience such a force.Magnetic Force on Current-Carrying Wire CurrentSince moving charges experience a force in a magnetic field. This property is at the heart of a number of devices. since a current consists of moving charges.
while a force on the bottom leg of the loop pushes the loop into the paper.
The net effect of these forces is to rotate the loop. A force exists on the top leg of the loop which pulls the loop out of the paper.Electric Motor
An electric motor.
. A current is passed through a loop which is immersed in a magnetic field. is a machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical (rotational or kinetic) energy.
(Magnetism from Electricity)
An electromagnet is simply a coil of wires which.
. generate a magnetic field. when a current is passed through. as below.
All substances .solid. Remember why? How much they react causes them to be put into several material ´typesµ.
.Magnetic Properties of Matter
In other words«.materials which produce magnetic fields with no apparent circulation of charge. gas.react to the presence of a magnetic field on some level. and liquid .
Ferromagnetism . cobalt. the domains in line with the field will grow in size as the domains perpendicular to the field will shrink in size. gadolinium. creating magnetic domains forming a permanent magnet.When a ferromagnetic material is placed
near a magnet. This is what we are most familiar with when our magnet picks up a bunch of paperclips.Magnet . Iron. dysprosium and alloys containing these elements exhibit ferromagnetism because of the way the electron spins within one atom interact with those of nearby atoms. If a piece of iron is placed within a strong magnetic field. They will align themselves.
. it will be attracted toward the region of greater magnetic field. nickel.
the magnetic fields of the individual domains line up in the direction of the external field this causes the external magnetic field to be enhanced
.Making a Magnet from a Ferromagnetic Material
domains in which the magnetic fields of individual atoms align orientation of the magnetic fields of the domains is random no net magnetic field.
when an external magnetic field is applied.
A Ferromagnet in the Middle
If we look at a solenoid. wrap it around a nice iron core. but rather than air. What happens to the change in flux for a given current? Can you see why ferromagnetic materials are often put in the middle of currentcarrying coils?
It is exhibited by all common materials. copper. People and frogs are diamagnetic. silver and lead. as well as many nonmetals such as water and most organic compounds are diamagnetic. Metals such as bismuth. but is very weak. just opposite to a ferromagnetic material.More Magnet . it will be repelled from the region of greater magnetic field.isms
Diamagnetism .When a diamagnetic material is placed
near a magnet.
rare earth elements and actinide elements.When a paramagnetic material is placed
near a magnet.More Magnet . The difference is that the attraction is weak. Liquid oxygen and aluminum are examples of paramagnetic materials. it will be attracted to the region of greater magnetic field. It is exhibited by materials containing transition elements.isms
. like a ferromagnetic material.