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The biologically active compounds, dead, or living parts of plants and animals or the whole plants, animals or microbes, applied to control agricultural and domestic pests, are called Biopesticides.
Azadiractin is produced from Azadiracta indica . The other genera to have rotenones or rotenoids include Tephrosia. Nicotine is usually obtained from Nicotiana tobacum. Rotenone is present in 68 species of Fabaceae. Plants as biopesticides Pyrethrum insecticide is derived from the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. Milletia etc. Sabadilla (Veratrin) is another pesticide derived from Veratrum album. but the most exploited are Derris and Lonchocarpus. Schoenocaulon officinale etc. and is used as a pesticide.1.
radish and cauliflower Same as above Same as above Leaf extracts Insect control in rice and groundnut Dried leaves. seed extract Post harvest insect control.Seed treatment Seed paste. oil Insect control in legumes Seeds Oils Same as above Tomato Calotropis Datura Castor Cotton .Plant extracts as biopesticide Plant Marigold Plant parts Leaves and extracts Purpose Insect control in cabbage.
Pesticide of animal origin Annelid toxin Nereistoxin. . Pheromone of insects is also used for controlling pests.2. present in the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda is a potent chemical for controlling domestic pests like cockroaches and termites.
These insects do not pose the problem of environmental toxicity. But some times they emerge as a secondary pest due to change in environmental condition.Insects as biopesticides Insects are also used for control of pests through parasitism. competition and predation. .
Legumes Rice . Vegetables and many more« . Oil seeds Rice Rice Rice. eggs of stem borer. white fly Larvae of butterfly Stem borer.Insects as Biopesticides Insect Spider Killer bug Cricket GardenHoppers Ear wig Target pest Stem borer. green bug Thrips. white thrips Larvae of stem borer Target crop Rice. leaf cutting insects.
Fungi such as Beauveria. Viruses like NPV. Microbes as Pesticides WHO has investigated Viruses. Metarhizum.3. Nematodes like Romanomermis culicivorax and other species are used as insecticide. Fungi and Nematodes as potential biopesticides. Granulosis viruses Bacteria such as Bacillus. Streptomyces and Salmonella are used. are used as insecticides. . Verticillium. 22 varieties of Bacillus thuringiensis are used as pesticides. Pseudomonas. Hirsutella etc. Bacteria. CPV.
Legumes . Heliothis -doBlast fungus Thrips. nematodes Insects Sugarcane Sugarcane. bugs. Pseudomonas fluorescens Salmonella sp. Heliothis Spodoptera. Target pest Target crop Stem borer Spodoptera.wheat Rice.Viruses and Bacteria as Bioinsecticides Microbes Viruses GV NPV Bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis B.Fruits. Papilliae Streptomyces sp. Cotton -doRice Rice. Cotton Vegetables.
maize Stem borer etc. Insects Rice Aphids Apple Insects leaf hopper. fungi Rice vegetables .Fungi as Biopesticides Microbes Fungi Beauveria basiana Hirsutela sp. Verticillium lecani Metarhizum sp. Trichoderma viridae Target pest Target crop Corn borer Rice.
Dactylarya. . are used for specific weed control. Alternaria cassiae etc. are used for trapping nematodes in the field. coccodes. Dactylella. Verticillium etc. C.Fungi as Biopesticides Nematicides: Fungi like Arthrobotrys. Herbicides: Phytophthora palmivora (fungus) for milkweed vine Other fungi such as Colletotricum gleospiroides.
brinjal.Fungi as Biopesticides Fungicides Trichoderma viridae controls soil borne fungal plant pathogens. etc. A. tomato. Arthorobotrys oligospora controls root knot of rice. dactyloides controls root knot of brinjal. .
D. Cotton Rice Vegetables . Lepidoptera Rice. Nematode Stem borer Protozoa: Malameba locustae Grasshoppers Mattesia sp.Nematodes and Protozoa as Biopesticides Microbes Target pest Target crop Nematodes: Romanomermis sp. Mosquito D.
and weeds.Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Integrated pest control was first described by Hoskin et al. as well as on economic and social considerations.. Pest means any organism detrimental to human and human interests along with invertebrates. pathogens. Management refer to a set of rules based on ecological principles. . as Biological and chemical control of pests. 1939. chemical and biological) to control a single pest or multiple pests. vertibrates. animals. Integration means use of multiple methods (physical. insects.
This is used to manage pest population with least possible damage to humans. . It combines the knowledge about the life cycle of pests and their interaction with the environment. and environment.Integrated Pest Management (IPM) In other words ³the use of all appropriate pest management methods including the judicious use of pesticides is called Integrated Pest Management´. properties.
Main steps of IPM application IPM involves applying series of management in four main steps. Action threshold Pest monitoring Prevention Control pest .
Action is taken at a point where further increase in pest population becomes an economic threat.Action threshold: IPM strategy first sets a point at which population of pest or environmental conditions indicate that pestcontrol action can be initiated. Pest monitoring: Correct identification of the pest is crucial All insects seen are not pests Some are beneficial Monitoring and identification eliminates possibility of use of wrong pesticides the .
Prevention: IPM methods works by managing the crops. . lawn or indoor spaces to prevent pests from becoming a threat.g. the following methods can prove effective and preventive control against pests: -crop rotation -use of pest resistant varieties -planting of pest free root stock etc.. in agriculture. For e.
.Control: The actual control which follows the first three steps involves. Choosing least targeted chemicals. for example pheromones to disrupt the mating or mechanical means by weeding out pests. Comprehensive spraying of nonspecific pesticides is the last choice. Failure of this steps lead to the use of additional pest control methods like targeted spraying of pesticides.
opossum. Reducing moisture in and around dwelling unit and taking appropriate repair measures to prevent termite and other pest infestation. Watering the plants in the morning to reduce the chance of turf diseases.Preventive IPM Strategy Implementation of preventive IPM strategy involves the following sequence of steps: 1. 3. cockroaches. raccoons and rats away from food. 2. skunks. Keeping the surroundings of the dwelling unit clean to remove any cover for pests . 4. Keeping the surroundings clean and storing food properly to keep pests.
is lost on account of pests. during harvesting and post harvest period. IPM strategy is much more effective biopesticides are used.Conclusion In developing countries almost 60-70% of food. IPM minimizes this loss. Provides long term results when . Biopesticides are cheaper They are biodegradable and do not pose problem of bioaccumulation like chemical pesticides. Advantages Biopesticides are less toxic to use as they target specific pest and closely related organisms.
Conclusion Disadvantages Proper identification essential of biopesticides is Performance may change due to influence of biotic and abiotic factors y Requires more skill and knowledge than traditional pest control .