by ccs

Theories of learning





learning model. learning by observation and copy HUMANIST Carl Rogers Learning are effected by emotion and feeling Every individual has potential to get success Teacher guide them to follow the right path . Gagne. Skinner Stimuli and reaction COGNITIVIST Kohler. Thorndike. reseption) SOCIALIST Bandura Neobehaviorist (behavior+cognitive). learning category. problem solving.LEARNING CONCEPT   -   - BEHAVIORIST Pavlov.Ausubel Learning is a process inside human mind Gestalt theory (meaningful learning. Bruner.observation.

but were usurped by behavioural theories earlier this century. only to rereemerge as the dominant force again. . store and then find relationships between information. schema and scripts.Cognitive theories of learning     Cognitive theories first appeared last century. linking new to old knowledge. They take the perspective that students actively process information and learning takes place through the efforts of the student as they organise. Cognitive approaches emphasise how information is processed. They are concerned with the things that happen inside our heads as we learn.

Similarities of three cognitive theorists     These three cognitive theorists. they share the following features in common. all three attempted to define cognitive theories of instruction. At that time all three were established in their careers and recognised as authorities in their own right. the depression and the second World War had made such evaluations impossible for almost thirty years. for the first time since the 1920s. David Ausubel and Robert Gagné have not adopted a developmental perspective different theoretical positions. . they all put forward their ideas initially in the 1960s. The advent of these theories coincided with a period in which Western educators were. Jerome Bruner. seriously pausing to consider their educational policies.

 Of equal importance was the fact that this period of questioning in the 1960s coincided with periods of tremendous growth in scientific knowledge and expansion of. what was now in these Western countries. universal secondary education .


1963) between new learning material and existing related ideas. According to Ausubel. . Ausubel¶s subsumption theory contends that ³the most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows´ (Ausubel. 1968). He emphasizes that advance organizers are different from overviews and summaries which simply emphasize key ideas and details in an arbitrary manner. a primary process in learning is subsumption in which new material is related to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structures. Ausubel¶s theory is involved with how individuals learn large amounts of ³meaningful´ material from verbal/textual lessons in school. as opposed to theories of learning developed in laboratories. Organizers act as a ³subsuming bridge´ (Ausubel. Ausubel proposes an instructional mode using advance organizers.Ausubel¶s Theory      David Ausubel is a psychologist who advanced a theory which contrasted meaningful learning from rote learning.

No affective commitment to relate new knowledge to prior learning. . Learning not related to experience with events or objects. verbatim. non-substantive incorporation of new nonknowledge into cognitive structure. No effort to integrate new knowledge with existing concepts in cognitive structure.Meaningful Learning Contrasted with Rote Learning  Rote Learning     Arbitrary.

Deliberate effort to link new knowledge with higher order concepts in cognitive structure Learning related to experiences with events or objects. . substantive incorporation of nonnew knowledge into cognitive structure. Affective commitment to relate new knowledge to prior learning. non-verbatim. Meaningful Learning     NonNon-arbitrary.

Ausubel's Model of Learning Phase One: Advance Organizer Phase Two: Presentation of Learning Task or Material Make the organization of the new material explicit. Clarify aim of the lesson Present the organizer Relate organizer Present material and engage students to students' in meaningful knowledge learning activities. Make logical order of learning material explicit. Phase three: Strengthening Cognitive Organization Relate new information to advance organizer Promote active reception learning. .

Novak concluded that "Meaningful learning involves the assimilation of new concepts and propositions into existing cognitive structures". Novak at Cornell University. . Novak¶s work was based on the theories of Ausubel.Novak¶s Concept Mapping Technique     The concept mapping technique was developed by Joseph D. Novak and Gowan (1984) have developed a theory of instruction that is based on Ausubel's meaningful learning principles that incorporates "concept maps" to represent meaningful relationships between concepts and propositions. structures".

   A cognitive map is a ³kind of visual road map ³kind showing some of the pathways we may take to connect meanings of concepts. more inclusive concepts should be at the top of the map. concept maps should be hierarchical. The more general.´ According to Novak and Gowan. . and the more specific. less inclusive concepts at the bottom of the map.

What is concept mapping?     Concept mapping is a technique for representing knowledge in graphs. Knowledge graphs are networks of concepts. Nodes represent concepts and links represent the relations between concepts. Networks consist of nodes and links. .

.biConcepts and links may be categorized. They can be    simply associative.or bi-directional. Links can be non-. uni.uni. Specified. or divided in categories such as causal or temporal relations.   Concepts and links are labeled. non.

hypermedia.) to design a complex structure (long texts.Purposes of Concept Mapping      to generate ideas (brain storming. etc. etc.) to communicate complex ideas to aid learning by explicitly integrating new and old knowledge to assess understanding or diagnose misunderstanding . large web sites.

Often students fail to see the relationship between different classes that they have taken. Students can use concept maps to connect material learned throughout the semester. Concept mapping can foster a student's understanding of how different courses relate if they map the prominent concepts from different courses that they have taken (e.Concept mapping as a student learning tool  To learn course material   Students can use concept maps to take class notes.  To integrate course content   To integrate material across different courses   . Students can use concept maps to organize class notes or course material. compose one map of terms from a statistics class and a research design class).g.

and/or at the end of the semester (to evaluate the students' knowledge after all course material has been covered).  A concept map can provide feedback to the student so that s/he can check her/his understanding of the material to see if any connections are missing. during the semester (to evaluate changes in the students' knowledge).   Learning can be evaluated before a course begins (to evaluate students' prior knowledge). Concept maps can be used to assess changes and growth in the students' conceptual understanding as a result of instruction received in the course. . To assess their own learning. Concept maps can be used to evaluate changes in learning over time and to evaluate end of course knowledge.

it is probably best to have the terms provided. .1. Identify the important terms or concepts that you want to include on your map  There are three strategies to identify important concepts to include concepts on a concept map:    An instructor generated list and students are not permitted to add their own concepts An instructor generated list but the students are allowed to add their own concepts to the list An entirely student-generated list of concepts on a studentparticular subject  For novice concept mappers.

. The use of hierarchical or non-hierarchical maps may nonhave different benefits in terms of pedagogy and assessment. Arrange concepts in a pattern that best represents the information    One can choose to use a hierarchical or nonnonhierarchical structure. Novice mappers may want to create their concept maps using post-it notes so that they can easily postchange the location of any concept before a final version is constructed.2.

Use circles or ovals to enclose an important term or concept within the topic  Each circle or oval should enclose only one term or concept. terms can be more than one word.3. . However.

Pay close attention to the direction of the arrowheads on the linking lines when labeling them. subset. However. Relations include: superset. Use straight lines with arrows (single or doubledouble-headed) to link terms that are related     Each line should link only two concepts.4. Each concept is defined by its relation to other concepts within the topic. part-whole. there is no limit to the number of links stemming from any one term. part- . attribute.

Example: Important term relationship link Important term relationship link feedback loop link Important term mutual relationship link Important term mutual relationship link . Use a word or phrase of words as labels along the lines to designate the relationship between two connected terms   Each line should have a label that describes the relationship between the two terms it connects.5.

Examples of concept maps .




topic. Emphasize importance of writing down the nature of the links. the better they¶ll understand the process. Work through example(s) with the group.htm . Emphasize that there is no single ³correct´ modifying the map where necessary ± using post-it notes can help to develop confidence and postfacilitates changes. Emphasize importance of using arrows and their direction in describing the proposition.How to make concept mapping a fruitful exercise        Students need to producing maps.fed. the more they do From http://www.cuhk. Begin with a simple topic. using a small number of concepts. often more than answer. one appropriate link. Emphasize importance of thinking about all possible links.

58 (7). Ausubel. Classroom Assessment Techniques. pp. Rinehart and Winston. (1993) Structural Knowledge: Techniques for Conveying. (1968).fed. David P. (1963). 45-49. Novak. Ontario: The Ontario Institute For Studies In Education. M.htm Use of concept maps in teaching: D.coginst. 197). David P. Assessing.References         Ausubel.uwf. A. A Cognitive View. and Cross.utwente. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. Hillsdale.A.cuhk. J. Ausubel. P. Educational http://users. San Francisco. JosseyJonassen. Beissneer K. (1967).umich. The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. Jossey-Bass. T. Inc.. (1991) "Clarify with Concept Maps: A tool for students and teachers alike.edte.htm http://wwwhttp://www-personal. New York: Holt. 45http://cmap. A Handbook for College Teachers (2nd Learning Theory and classroom Practice. New York: Grune & Stratton." The Science Teacher. David P. K.html . and Yacci. and Acquiring Structural Knowledge.D.