(six month training on PLC and SCADA

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INTRODUCTION
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PLC (programmable logic controller) is a device which is use for industrial application , to control complex consumer electronic products. Plc is the most demandable technology in consumer market as it efficiently control industrial equipments.

CONTENTS
PLC BASICS € PLC BLOCK DIAGRAME € PLC COMPONENTS € PLC APPLICATION € LADDER LOGIC € LADDER PROGRAMMING € PLC BASED INDUSTRIALPNEUMATIC ACTUATOR € SCADA
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PLC BASICS
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A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures.

PROGRAMABLE LOGIC CONTROL
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A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise unintended Operation will result.

FUNCTIONALITY
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The functionality of the PLC has evolved over the years to include sequential relay control, motion control, process control, distributed control systems and networking.

MAJOR TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
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PLC They are based on the Boolean logic operations whereas some models use timers and some have continuous control. These devices are computer based and are used to control various process and equipments within a facility. PLCs control the components in the DCS and SCADA systems but they are primary components in smaller control configurations. *DCS Distributed Control Systems consists of decentralized elements and all the processes are controlled by these elements. Human interaction is minimized so the labor costs and injuries can be reduced. *Embedded Control In this control system, small components are attached to the industrial computer system with the help of a network and control is exercised. *SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition refers to a centralized system and this system is composed of various subsystems like Remote Telemetry Units, Human Machine Interface, Programmable Logic Controller or PLC and Communications

FEATURE
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The main difference from other computers is that PLCs are armored for severe conditions (such as dust, moisture, heat, cold) and have the facility for extensive input/output (I/O) arrangements.

Discfription of Function of PLC
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These connect the PLC to sensors and actuators. PLCs read limit switches, analog process variables (such as temperature and pressure), and the positions of complex positioning systems. Some use machine vision.

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On the actuator side, PLCs operate electric motors, pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders, magnetic relays, solenoids, or analog outputs. The input/output arrangements may be built into a simple PLC, or the PLC may have external I/O modules attached to a computer network that plugs into the PLC.

ADVANTAGES
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Rugged and designed to withstand vibrations, temperature, humidity, and noise. * Have interfacing for inputs and outputs already inside the controller.

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* Easily programmed and have an easily understood programming language

DISADVANTAGES
Too much work required in connecting wires. - Difficulty with changes or replacements. - Difficulty in finding errors; requiring skillful work force. - When a problem occurs, hold-up time is indefinite, usually long

PLC APPLICATION
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*In automated system, PLC controller is usually the central part of a process control system. *To run more complex processes it is possible to connect more PLC controllers to a central computer

BLOCK DIG OF PLC

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Input and Output Units (I/O) Inputs are wired to sensing devices such as button keypads, selector switches, photocells, motion detectors, etc. If an input senses that a sensor is closed, the input converts the voltage to a logic 1 signal understood by the CPU to be ON. A logic 1 signal indicates an On or CLOSED state, and a logic 0 signal indicates an OFF or OPEN state. Ouputs are wired to switching devices such as lights, garage doors, heating systems, and other household appliances. Outputs switch the supplied control voltage that energizes or deenergizes the switching devices. If an output is turned ON by the CPU, the control voltage is switched to activate the switching device.

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Central Processing Unit (CPU) Within the CPU are the digital processor, memory, and power supply. These components interact to solve application logic and pass control signals to the outputs. The CPU reads the converted input signals, executes the user logic program stored in its memory, then writes the appropriate output signals to the switching devices. The application program is written in a language called ladder logic.

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System Block Diagram The block diagram shows the major components of a PLC. The PLC monitors the state of the sensing devices by receiving signals from its inputs, solves a user logic program stored in its CPU, and then directs switching device activity by sending control signals to its outputs.

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LADDER LOGIC

Ladder programming fed to plc to perform task by codes software.

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Programming language that is used to control Allen Bradley SLC-500 system known as ladder logic. There are three basic elements associated with the organization ladder logic: ‡ Rungs ‡ Instructions ‡ Branches

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INSTRUCTIONS Ladder Logic Instruction is divided into 2 parts: ‡ Input instructions: Displayed on the left side of the ladder. Check, comparison, or the specific conditions. ‡ Output instructions: Published on the right side. The key point about the instructions: ‡ Added instructions displayed on the left side of the rungs while the output instructions are always displayed on the right side of the rungs. ‡ A rung does not require any input instructions, but must contain at least one output instruction

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BRANCHES Branches used in ladder logic to create different paths that directly read the state of inputs and outputs. Bit instructions. Bit instructions are instructions that ladder logic instructions execute or change a single bit of data table files. Here are three types of bit instructions: Conditional input instructions. Non-retentive output instructions. Retentive output bit instructions.

PLC PROJECT TO CONTROL PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR
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Sample PLC Project This is a simple project to control a pneumatics actuator. PLC pneumatics actuator project. First things first - you all you need to do is list down all the physical (real world) inputs and outputs. As in this project, the physical inputs are the ³START´ button which is addressed at 0.00 and the reed switches which are addressed at 0.01 for backward reed switch and 0.02 for forward reed switch. Physical outputs are the solenoid valve (SV) which controls the air flow into the pneumatics cylinder actuator and the alarm. As in the case, the SV used is of 3-2 way type which means that when the valve is in ON state, it will allow air to make the actuator goes forward, and when the valve is in OFF state, it will allow air to make the actuator goes backward. The SV is addressed at 100.00 and the alarm is at 100.01

FLOW CHART

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The program will set the solenoid valve and forward error timer ON once start button and backward reed switch are ON. The pneumatics actuator will then move forward within 10 seconds until it reaches forward reed switch. If it does not reach forward reed switch in 10 seconds, alarm will ON. When the actuator reaches forward reed switch, the backward error timer will ON, the forward error timer and solenoid valve will turn OFF so the actuator will automatically move backward. If the actuator does not reach backward reed switch in 10 seconds, alarm will be triggered. Once it reaches backward reed switch withing 10 seconds, 1 cycle has been completed and the program ends.

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When the actuator reaches forward reed switch, the backward error timer will ON, the forward error timer and solenoid valve will turn OFF so the actuator will automatically move backward. If the actuator does not reach backward reed switch in 10 seconds, alarm will be triggered. Once it reaches backward reed switch withing 10 seconds, 1 cycle has been completed and the program ends

LADDER LOGIC CONTROL OF PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR

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pneumatic actuator systems, which use compressed air to transmit motion

PLC APPLICATIONS
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Snack Foods Glass Fiberglass Material Conveying Extrusion Systems Building Products

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Why PLC and SCADA
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REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS.

EFFICENT EFFICENCY TO CONTROL INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX SYSTEMS EFFECTIVE € COST EFECTIVE.
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SCADA
Where Programming Comes In All of this requires that physical conditions be translated into machine language and then signals that humans can read, record and analyze. Thus a full fledged SCADA system has to comprise of both hardware and software elements. Today¶s sophisticated SCADA systems include input/output signal devices, control equipment, HMI (Human Machine Interface), networking, communication systems, databases and software. € Thus SCADA system development involves programming at various levels. Data collected at the RTU has to be converted into signals, and for interpreting this data an operator requires HMI. Often the data also has to be compiled and stored (history databases) for recognizing trends and analysis work. Thus customized database systems have to be developed. Networks, communication systems etc bring in more varied requirements for programming
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PLC AND SCADA FUTURE
RELIABLE € USE IN SNSTIVE AREAS € CONTROL COMLEX INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS
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