Smart Grid ± An Outline

Shyam Penubolu



Overview of existing electricity grid Benefits of the smart grid Components of the smart grid Smart grid players ± participating companies

Smart Grid ± An Outline



Overview of existing electricity grid Benefits of the smart grid Components of the smart grid Smart grid players ± participating companies

Smart Grid ± An Outline


The Grid is Already Smart!
In the USA: 

9200 electricity generating units 300,000 miles of transmission lines 99.97% reliable Termed as the greatest engineering achievement of the 20th century by the National Academy of Engineering 

Smart Grid ± An Outline


PDAs. . ± while Thomas Edison. renewable sources ± Slow mechanical switches     Climate Change: Electricity accounts for 40% of GHG emissions. National Economy increasingly dependent texting.So. cell towers. on electronic equipment. etc. Affordability: ± Rising fossil fuel costs triggering increase in one of the grid¶s key early energy costs architects. he would ± No situational awareness not begin to recognize the components of modern Energy Efficiency telephony ± cell phones.From DOE's Smart Grid: An Introduction Smart Grid ± An Outline 5 . would be totally ± Grid not prepared to easily accommodate familiar with the grid. what are the issues? Does not address modern concerns such as:  Reliability: increasing number of black-outs If Alexander Graham Bell were somehow transported ± No automated analytics to the 21st century.

Average efficiency of legacy grids is 33% whereas the efficiency of those using modern technologies is 60%      Smart Grid ± An Outline 6 . In 2000.Some Startling Numbers   Power outages cost $180 billion per year Growth in peak demand exceeds growth in transmission by almost 25% every year If the grid were just 5% more efficient. the energy savings would equate to eliminating 53 million cars Sun Microsystems estimates that a blackout costs the company $1 million every minute. Load from chip technologies and automated manufacturing is about 40% currently. Expected to reach 60% by 2012. the one-hour outage that hit the Chicago Board of Trade resulted in $20 trillion in trades delayed.

Overview of existing electricity grid Benefits of the smart grid Components of the smart grid Smart grid players ± participating companies Smart Grid ± An Outline 7 .

Smart Grid ± An Outline 8 . Can control their consumption based on realtime pricing information ± the control can be automated ± even possible via the web.   Can power electric and plug-in/hybrid vehicles and feed locally generated energy back to the grid.Benefits to Consumers   Can monitor their energy consumption in real-time.

anticipate demand and automatically adjust energy flows Peak Load Balancing ± interact with customers to reduce demand at peak load Enable integration of external renewable energy sources to pump electricity back into the grid Fault Isolation ± advanced sensors allow quick isolation of faults in the network and speedy recovery Power Plant Growth ± better management of demand and supply allows utilities to reduce need for additional power plants     Smart Grid ± An Outline 9 .Benefits to Utilities  Monitor load in real-time.

Overview of existing electricity grid Benefits of the smart grid Components of the smart grid Smart grid players ± participating companies Smart Grid ± An Outline 10 .

Smart Grid ± An Outline 11 . characterized by 2-way flow of electricity and information and is capable of monitoring everything from power plants to customer appliances.Components of the Smart Grid The Smart Grid is a widely distributed electricity delivery network.

 Sensing and Measurement: Advanced Components: enable remote monitoring and more accurate response. .  Advanced Control Methods: monitor essential components.  Improved Interfaces and Decisions Support: enable grid operators and managers to take informed decisions. enabling rapid diagnosis and precise solutions to events.Key Smart Grid Technologies  Integrated Communication: enables 2-way communication for monitoring and controlling grid components in real-time. storage etc. fault tolerance. Smart Grid ± An Outline 12 .  apply the latest research in superconductivity.

interactive medium for 2-way real-time information and power exchange. Enhances reliability ± enables Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Demand Response (DR).     Smart Grid ± An Outline 13 . securely. reliably. Appropriate media that will provide the necessary infrastructure to transmit information accurately. DR.Integrated Communications ± Key Benefits  Enable the grid to become a dynamic. DER etc. Enhances security ± better detection of physical and cyber threats to the grid Economic benefits to both users and utilities via realtime pricing information.

OpenAMI. Smart Grid ± An Outline 14 .g. currently under development ± e. IEEE is working on Broadband Power Line (BPL) BPL is being deployed in some cases but Wireless is emerging as a viable alternative Exception where a standard is available is Substation Automation (SA) ± IEC 61850.Integrated Communications ± Current State     Communications too slow and not integrated Mostly. no standards exist.

11b and IEEE 802.Communication Technologies Technology Broadband Over Power Line Multiple Address System Radio Spreadspectrum radio systems WiFi   Comments Communication over low and medium voltage lines Currently being used for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR). secure radio-system where frequency hops in a particular band.11g standards.    Used as last-mile connection to a main communications system Short-range wireless communication based on IEEE 802.  WiMax 4G Wireless technology that provides longer distance communications (10 ± 30 miles) with data rates of 75 Mbps  Can be used as the core transmission and distribution communications system that supports WiFi applications for SA or DA. Consists of a master radio transmitter/receiver and several remote transmitters/receivers  Currently deployed for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Distribution Automation (DA). DR.  Smart Grid ± An Outline 15 . DER. video monitoring etc. Useful for communication within the premises. Point to multi-point.

such as load shedding Broadband communication over fiber-optic connections to customer premises Can be used in connecting the end users ± homes and industrial facilities Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH)   Smart Grid ± An Outline 16 . Data rates up to 14 Mbps downlink are possible. Can be applied as a low-cost solution for SA to control. Low-to-medium speed communication over electric power lines Supports AMI deployments and grid control functions. UMTS and HSPA. monitor substation performance when small bursts of information are needed  Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Power-line carrier Satellite-based 2-way communication that offers data rates of 56 kbps to 4 Mbps     Typically used for narrowband communication such as in SCADA.Communication Technologies Technology Cellular 3G  Comments Family of standards that includes GSM EDGE.

interactive medium for real-time information and power exchange. Smart Grid ± An Outline 17 . Open communications standards Appropriate media that will provide the necessary infrastructure to transmit information accurately. reliably. securely.Integrated Communications ± Future    Integrated communications will enable the grid to become a dynamic.

Advanced Sensing and Measurement Current customer-focused advances: Consumer gateway: ± Advanced meter reading ± Real-time pricing ± Integration of energy generated by customer ± Building energy management system ± Remote power quality monitoring Smart Grid ± An Outline 18 .

Advanced Sensing and Measurement Residential consumer network .a subset of consumer gateway   Advanced Meter Uses digital technology to read and record electrical parameters Smart Grid ± An Outline 19 .

Utility focused advances Wide-area Monitoring System (WAMS): ± GPS based PMUs measure voltage and current at various locations on the grid ± Provides global view of the grid. automatically monitors it and alerts the operator in case of (possible) issues ± Combines phasor data with SCADA for enhanced state estimation ± Most promising of all the technologies Dynamic line rating technology ± Measures the ampacity (current carrying capability) of lines in real-time Smart Grid ± An Outline 20 .

detection and self-checking diagnostics Smart Grid ± An Outline 21 .Utility focused advances ± Conductor/compression connector sensor: ‡ Determines line rating by measuring the conductor temperature and line sag ‡ Communication via BPL or wireless ± Insulation contamination leakage current sensor: ‡ Continuously monitors leakage current to determine key parameters ± Advances in protection ± Digital relays that have replaced electro-mechanical ones have better fault isolation.

Future Customer focused: ± Solid-state meters are the future ± Will record usage at different times of day ± Will listen to real-time pricing signals sent by the provider and display to user ± May be capable of controlling loads based on customer profile ± May even provide non-utility services such as fire and burglar alarms Smart Grid ± An Outline 22 .Advanced Sensing and Measurement .

Future Utility focused: ± Tools that will provide info on: ‡ Power factor ‡ Power quality throughout the grid ‡ Phasor relationships (WAMS) ‡ Equipment health and capacity ‡ Meter tampering ‡ Vegetation intrusion ‡ Fault location ‡ Transformer and line loading ± New host software systems will collect. analyze. and process the abundance of data that flows from these modern tools ± Future digital relays that employ computer agents will further enhance reliability Smart Grid ± An Outline 23 . store.Advanced Sensing and Measurement .

Advanced Components ± Current State Both AC and HVDC transmission equipment requiring power electronics. Provides voltage support and improves power quality MV SVR: Boosts load voltage during source voltage sags caused by faults in the utility distribution grid or in the transmission system Static VAr Compensator: Most important and most prevalent device. Improves transmission line efficiency by resolving dynamic voltage problems   Smart Grid ± An Outline 24 . These devices aid in:  Voltage control at various load conditions  Power quality enhancement  Reactive power balance  Stability problems in longdistance transmission Examples of devices using power electronics (FACTS ± Flexible AC Transmission System):  Universal Power Flow Contoller: does reactive power compensation and flow control  DVAR (Dynamic VAr): Mobile device.

trapezoid cross section conductor wire Grid-friendly appliances ± that can be switched off or on to modulate load during system disturbances.   DER ± small capacity ± 3 to 10000 KW power generation. Fuel Cells and Microturbines. steel supported. Solar PV. Distributed Generation± Wind. located close to where energy is used.     Smart Grid ± An Outline 25 . Aluminum conductor composite core cable Aluminum conductor composite reinforced cable Annealed aluminum.Advanced Components ± Current Research  Superconductivity ± First Generation Wire ± High-temperature Superconductor (HTS) Cable ± 2G Wire (5-10 years development required) DER: Distributed Storage:     NaS battery Vanadium Redox battery Ultra-capacitors Composite conductors: allows doubling of amperage limits without modifications to line support or towers.

the following are the benefits of PHEVs: Significant reduction in oil consumption Utilities can control the time at which PHEVs are recharged. Smart Grid ± An Outline 26 . Say.Advanced Components ± Role of Plug-in Hybrid EVs (PHEV)     According to NREL¶s research. overnight when the demand is low PHEVs can be used to store energy that can be used in periods of extreme demand or system emergencies.

Energy Management Systems ± Analytical Tools such as Phasor Measurement Analyzer. E. ACM may also take automatic corrective actions to prevent outages and power quality disturbances Currently deployed ACM have a local scope and do not have a system-wide perspective ACM relies on three areas: ± Distributed Intelligent Agents ± semi-autonomous entities that respond to local conditions rapidly. System Performance Monitoring.Advanced Control Methods (ACM)     ACM refers to the devices and algorithms that analyze the current state of the grid and predict fault conditions. DA and DR Smart Grid ± An Outline 27 .g. Simulation and Prediction ± Operational Applications such as SA.

regional and system-wide levels Advanced Data Analysis will help in load forecasting. and will enable prediction of grid instabilities System diagnosis at local.Advanced Control Methods . risk analysis.Future   ACM will process real-time information received from Low cost Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) PMUs integrated with GPS time signals will be deployed to provide the grid status. planning and maintenance Take autonomous actions when appropriate or present data to human operators    Smart Grid ± An Outline 28 .

Integrated Interfaces and Decision Support (IIDS)  IIDS helps present complex smart grid data in a simple manner and not let operators feel swamped by data overload. the required amount and quality of data is not available Research being done in the area of visualization Progress mostly happening in the area of transmission 29      Smart Grid ± An Outline . IIDS enables operators to analyze the state of the grid and predict issues rapidly Techniques include animation. colour contouring and virtual reality Currently.

Future   IIDS will enable operators at generation. transmission levels to get a better understanding of the state of the grid. Improved information sharing among uses via integration with enterprise-wide technologies such as: ± GIS ± Weather forecasting ± Work management system and ± Asset management processes Smart Grid ± An Outline 30 . distribution.Integrated Interfaces and Decision Support .

Overview of existing electricity grid Benefits of the smart grid Components of the smart grid Smart grid players ± participating companies Smart Grid ± An Outline 31 .

lighting etc.Cisco     Aiming to be a one-stop shop for end-to-end distribution and transmission secure communication infrastructure Offer Cisco¶s data center portfolio to enable data collection and storage for smart grid data analysis and optimization Software for centralized management and control ± distribution management. Partnering with smart meters and other smart grid device vendors to create an ecosystem that utilities have multiple options Has announced a building energy management software product called EnergyWise: ± ± integrated platform for monitoring and controlling energy usage of computers.  Smart Grid ± An Outline 32 . GIS. automated metering infrastructure. leverages capabilities of products from partner companies: ‡ Computer power management from Verdiem ‡ Network management software from SolarWinds ‡ Building controls from Schneider Electric. asset management etc. phones. HVAC.

IBM      Aims to be the system integrator for smart grid infrastructure Formed the Global Intelligent Utility Network ± an alliance of innovative utilities Goals of the alliance ± optimize usage of wind energy. energy efficiency and reliability. The alliance helps share experiences and best practices. The alliance has also created a Smart Grid maturity model Smart Grid ± An Outline 33 .

grid sensors. wind turbines and energy storage   Smart Grid ± An Outline 34 . smart thermostats.GE  Smart appliances such as washing machines and dryers that can respond to Demand Response commands Smart HomeEnergy Manager ± a device to link smart appliances Smart meters.

Google  Google PowerMeter software: ± enables access to home energy usage information from any computer/mobile ± Tracks historical data and predicts future trends  Google working with utilities and smart energy meter manufacturers to interoperate with PowerMeter.  Smart Grid ± An Outline 35 . Not a big player in Smart Grid currently but a company to watch.

Battelle Ventures. GulfSouth Capital. Endeavor Capital Management. US based public company  Startup making smart meters that communicate over GPRS/WiFi using IP network technology About $80 million in funding from Credit Suisse.3 million smart meter contract from S. Beacon Group. Working with several other utilities.6 billion public company Has won smart meter deals worth over $400 million. A $1. A $1.25+ billion public Swiss company  Landis & Gyr Sensus Metering Systems SmartSynch Plans to install 430.Other Key Players ± Smart Meters Itron Won a 5. Kinetic Ventures. California Edison. OPG Ventures and Siemens Venture Capital  Smart Grid ± An Outline 36 .000 smart meters in Hawaii. Innovation Valley Partners.

 Silver Spring Networks   Sells IP based hardware and software to connect utilities and customers About $250 million funding received. Craton Equity Partners. Edison Electric Institute. Expansion Capital. Robeco and The Susquehanna International Group of Companies.  Total funding of $214 million.  Smart Grid ± An Outline 37 . JVB Properties. eMeter $56 million funding received from Sequoia Capital. Investors include Google Ventures. Siemens Venture Capital and Arcelor Mittal. developing a dashboard that helps consumers monitor and cut energy consumption. Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. Investors include Altira Group.Other Key Players ± Smart Meters Gridpoint A startup. Foundation Capital. Acquired by Silver Spring Networks in Oct 09. Goldman Sachs. working on helping utilities balance energy loads through hardware and software. New Enterprise Associates. Sells software to help utilities manage the grid having smart meters in homes and businesses. Perella Weinberg Partners. Quercus Trust. Siemens Corporation & DBL Investors.  Greenbox Technologies Powerit Solutions  A startup. Northgate Capital. Provides an energy management system to reduce energy costs through demand control and demand response   About $13 million funded by @Ventures.

Ridgewood Capital. Appian Ventures. EnerTech Capital Partners. Vista Ventures. Helps Industrial and commercial building owners reduce their energy consumption over a peak-demand time period.75 million received from New Atlantic Ventures. Zouk Ventures  EnerNOC Provides demand response services. Over 500 utility clients already. NorskHydro Ventures. Foundation Capital.  Smart Grid ± An Outline 38 . Braemer Energy and Draper Fischer Jurvetson  Comverge Provides demand response services. Access Venture Partners. Nth Power.Key Players in Smart Grid ± Networks Tendril Makes home energy management software as well as hardware such as energy displays and smart plugs  $43 million received from RRE Ventures. Good Energies. VantagePoint. $41 million funding from Rockport Capital Partners.  Trilliant Makes open standards based software and hardware for timeof-use metering and two-way communication $40 million funded by MissionPoint Capital. $7.

The smart meters  PG&E ± Over 5 million smart meters installed  XCel Energy ± ± ± ± SmartGridCity initiative in Boulder. ± SmartConnect program to install 5 million smart meters. automated response to grid problems ± Replacing legacy electro-mechanical devices with digital ones for increased efficiency and reliability ± Installing advanced sensors and control systems to respond to stress rapidly. CO. Adding green energy to the mix Deploying smart meters and smart devices in homes Digitally enhanced and resilient energy grid 39 Smart Grid ± An Outline .Utilities  Southern California Edison ± ± installing computerized systems to ensure a more rapid. accurate.Other Key Players .

4 smart meters in San Diego region by 2011 Smart Grid demonstration funded by the Dept of Energy and California Energy Commission: ‡ Incorporated solar power generators on homes and small businesses.Other Key Players .Utilities  Austin Energy ± ± ± Smart Grid intiative called Pecan Street Project Involves deployment of 500. ‡ Leveraged smart meters. ‡ Integrated and remotely control distributed generation storage devices to allow access to electricity in emergencies. Won a $7.3 million Federal grant for demonstrating Dynamic Line Rating (DLR). The DLR demo will showcase monitoring technology to reduce transmission-line congestion and increase the carrying capacity of the transmission lines.000 smart devices and 410.000 smart meters On the network side. ‡ Coordinated new peak load management technology. 40  Sempra Energy ± ±  Oncor ± ± Smart Grid ± An Outline . ‡ Improve overall power quality. 3000 computers and network devices and 2500 sensors 1.

Thank You! Smart Grid ± An Outline 41 .