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Other major hypermarket chains include:
In the United States: Wal-Mart (known as Wal-Mart
Supercenters), Fred Meyer (part of the Kroger group), Meijer, and
SuperTargets. Stores in the United States tend to be single level
enterprises with long operating hours; many of them, especially
Wal-Marts, are continuously open except on major holidays
(typically Thanksgiving and Öhristmas). Hypermarkets are very
controversial in the U.S., with opposition coming primarily from
preservationists who argue that they destroy conventional
grocers, supermarkets, and downtowns. Hypermarkets have
been most successful in northern states where adverse winter
weather conditions make it inconvenient to visit multiple stores.
In the United Kingdom, Tesco operates some hypermarkets
(known as 
!" stores). AS•A (owned by Wal-Mart) also
operates some hypermarkets (# 

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Retailers are classified based on:

Amount of Service They Offer

Breadth & Depth of Product Lines

Relative Prices Charged

How They Are Organized


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Carry narrow product lines with deep assortments
within those lines.

• 
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Carry a wide variety of product linesƜtypically
clothing, home furnishings, and household goods.
Each line is operated as a separate department
managed by specialist buyers or merchandisers.
E"
) 1  
 
( 


Large, low-cost, low-margin, high-volume,
self-service store that carries a wide variety of food,
laundry, and household products.

Ö (

Small stores located near residential areas that
are open long hours 7 days a week and carry
a limited line of high-turnover convenience goods.
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cuch larger than regular supermarkets and
offer a large assortment of routinely purchased
food products, nonfood items, and services.

Ö


Giant specialty stores that carry a very deep
assortment of a particular line and is staffed
by knowledgeable employees.
4  E
1  
 
•  (

A retail institution that sells standard merchandise
at lower prices by accepting lower margins and
selling at higher volume.

@ 


Retailer that buys at less-than-regular wholesale
prices and sells at less than retail. Examples are
factory outlets, independents, and warehouse
clubs.
4  E
1  
 
ã
@
Off-price retailing operation that is owned and
operated by a manufacturer and that normally
carries the manufacturerƞs surplus, discontinued,
or irregular goods.

_ @ 


Off-price retailer that is either owned and run by
entrepreneurs or is a division of a larger retail
operation.
4  E
1  
 

ï
  Ö
Off-price retailer that sells a limited selection of
brand-name grocery items, appliances, clothing,
and a hodgepodge of other goods at deep
discounts to members who pay annual
membership fees.
  2   1  
 
Ö(

Two or more outlets that are owned and controlled,
have central buying and merchandising, and sell
similar lines of merchandise.

M 
Ö
A wholesaler-sponsored group of independent
retailers that engages in bulk buying and common
merchandising.
  2   1  
 

Ö 

A group of independent retailers that bands
together to set up a jointly owned, central
wholesale operation and conducts joint
merchandising and promotion efforts.

ã
 
A contractual association between a manufacturer,
wholesaler, or service organization (a franchiser)
and independent businesspeople (franchisees) who
buy the right to own and operate one or more
units in the franchise system.
* 
 
ãranchisees now
command 35% of
all retail sales in
the U.S. Subway
is one of the
fastest growing
franchises, with
nearly 20,000
shops in 74
countries.
  2   1  
 

c
 Ö  

A free-form corporation that combines several
diversified retailing lines and forms under central
ownership, along with some integration of their
distribution and management functions.
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