CS 634 Information Systems

Dr Deepak B Phatak Subrao Nilekani Chair Professor Kanwal Rekhi Building, Department of CSE IIT Bombay Session 8, Software Engineering, SRS

IIT BOMBAY

SESSION OVERVIEW
IIT BOMBAY

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Principles of Software Engineering Software Engineering Activities Process Maturity Measures Review of ER Model Functional Model
‡ Data Flow Model

‡ User Interface Issues ‡ Software Requirement Specifications (SRS)

Dr. Deepak B Phatak

cs634-Session 8, Software Engineering, SRS

2

ROLE OF SOFTWARE
IIT BOMBAY

‡ Business Functionality Depends Mainly On Software ‡ Good Systems S/W Is The Basis
‡ OS, Programming Languages (3GL)

‡ Tools To Build S/W Keep Evolving
‡ 4GL (SQL), RAD Tools

‡ Typical Life Cycle: 10 -15 Years

Dr. Deepak B Phatak

cs634-Session 8, Software Engineering, SRS

3

Software Characteristics
IIT BOMBAY

‡ Software is Developed or Engineered
‡ Not Manufactured

‡ Software Does Not ´Wear Outµ
‡ May Become Un-Maintainable ‡ Hardware Does wear out

‡ Most Software is Custom-Built
‡ Limited Role for Packaged Products Which Need Customization and Integration With Other Apps.

Dr. Deepak B Phatak

cs634-Session 8, Software Engineering, SRS

4

. quantifiable approach to the development. The application of engineering to software ‡ IEEE Definition 1993 Dr. Software Engineering. i. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. operation and maintenance of software. disciplined.SOFTWARE ENGINEERING IIT BOMBAY ‡ Application of a systematic.e. SRS 5 .

construction. verification and management of technical (or) social entities ‡ To engineer S/W. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.SOFTWARE ENGINEERING IIT BOMBAY ‡ Engineering is the analysis. design. we must define A development process Dr. SRS 6 . Software Engineering.

Software Engineering. People ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ System Analysis System Design Coding. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.Building Information Systems IIT BOMBAY ‡ Functional Specifications ‡ System Engineering ‡ Feasibility Study ‡ Allocation To H/W. Testing. Integration Acceptance and Deployment Dr. S/W. SRS 7 .

Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. and Processes ‡ Generate Application ‡ Test and Turnover Dr. Software Engineering.Software Process Models IIT BOMBAY ‡ Linear Sequential Model ‡ The Waterfall Model ‡ User Knows Inadequacies Too Late ‡ Prototyping Model ‡ Model Business. SRS 8 . Data.

Software Engineering.Software Process Models IIT BOMBAY ‡ Rapid Application Development ‡ Evolutionary Models ‡ The Incremental Model ‡ Sequential + Prototyping ‡ The Spiral Model ‡ Concurrent Development Model ‡ Formal Methods Model Dr. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. SRS 9 .

SRS 10 .UMBRELLA ACTIVITIES IIT BOMBAY ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Project Tracking And Control Formal Technical Reviews S/w Quality Assurance Configuration Management Document Production Reusability Management Measurement. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. Software Engineering. Risk management Dr.

Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. SRS 11 . Software Engineering.Software Project Management IIT BOMBAY ‡ Basic Project Management ‡ Software Teams ‡ Coordination & Communication ‡ Process and Project Metrics ‡ Based on Lines of Code (LoC) ‡ Function Point Oriented ‡ Project Scheduling and Tracking Dr.

Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.Software Engineering IIT BOMBAY ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ A Quality Focus Process Methods Tools Dr. Software Engineering. SRS 12 .

Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.SEI MODEL IIT BOMBAY ‡ Software Engineering Institute ‡ At Carnegie Mellon University ‡ Capability Maturity Model ‡ Five Levels of Maturity to Measure Effectiveness of an Organization in its Software Development Practices (CMM levels) Dr. Software Engineering. SRS 13 .

Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.CMM LEVEL 1 (Initial) IIT BOMBAY ‡ Process is Ad Hoc (Even Chaotic) ‡ Very Few Processes Are Defined ‡ Success Depends Entirely On Individual Efforts Dr. SRS 14 . Software Engineering.

Software Engineering. SRS 15 .CMM LEVEL 2 (Repeatable) IIT BOMBAY ‡ Basic Management Processes Are Established ‡ Cost Schedule And Functionality Is Tracked ‡ Discipline To Successfully Repeat Projects With Similar Applications Dr. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.

and integrated across the organization ‡ All projects use the documented approved version Dr. Software Engineering. SRS 16 . Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. documented.CMM LEVEL 3 (Defined) IIT BOMBAY ‡ Software process for both management and engineering activities is standardized.

CMM LEVEL 4 (Managed) IIT BOMBAY ‡ Detailed measures of process and product quality are collected ‡ Process and products quantitatively understood and controlled using detailed measures Dr. Software Engineering. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. SRS 17 .

CMM LEVEL 5 (Optimizing) IIT BOMBAY ‡ Quantitative feedback exists from process for continuous process improvement ‡ Testing innovative ideas and technologies Dr. SRS 18 . Software Engineering. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.

Software Engineering. SRS 19 . Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.Classical Analysis Modeling IIT BOMBAY ‡ Data Object Description ‡ Entity Relationship Diagram ‡ Relational Model ‡ Process Specification ‡ Data Flow Diagram ‡ Control Specifications ‡ State Transition Diagram Dr.

SRS 20 .SYSTEM ANALYSIS IIT BOMBAY ‡ Represent Information Domain Of The Problem ‡ Which Data. Interfaces. Constraints Dr. Software Engineering. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. How Manipulated ‡ Five Ws and One H ‡ Understand S/W Requirements ‡ Specify S/W Functions.

Software Engineering.ENTITY MODEL IIT BOMBAY shostel sname sroom scpi scourses sroll Student shobbies Dr. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. SRS 21 .

Course Entity IIT BOMBAY cname ccode ccredits cstudents Course cfaculty Dr. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. Software Engineering. SRS 22 .

SRS 23 .94 99011012 Vijay Ambre 01D15034 Shaukat Ali Dr. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.49 7. Software Engineering.TABLE REPRESENTATION IIT BOMBAY sroll sname shostel sroom scpi 02 08 218 218 8.

TABLE REPRESENTATION IIT BOMBAY ccode CS634 cname Information Systems ccredit 06 06 CS101 Computer Programming Dr. SRS 24 . Software Engineering. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.

Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. Software Engineering.RELATIONSHIPS IIT BOMBAY Student Grade Registers For sroll Course Dr. SRS ccode 25 .

Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. SRS 26 .TABLE FOR RELATIONSHIPS IIT BOMBAY sroll 99011012 ccode CS402 grade AB The REG Table Dr. Software Engineering.

Interfaces. etc. Workflow.ER MODEL IIT BOMBAY ‡ Captures Static Characteristics ‡ Associations May Be ‡ One To One (Shown By A Dot) ‡ One To Many. Dr. Many To One ‡ Easy To Map The Structure To Files Or Data Base Schema This Model Does Not Cover Dynamic Features. Software Engineering. SRS 27 . Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.

DATA DICTIONARY (Entity Sets) IIT BOMBAY ‡ A Repository Of All Information About Entities And Associations ‡ For An Entity ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Name. Software Engineering. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. Brief Description Approximate Number in The Set Frequency of Changes Any Other Information Dr. SRS 28 .

SRS 29 .DATA DICTIONARY (Attributes) IIT BOMBAY ‡ For Each Attribute ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Name. Brief Description Data Type and Field Width Valid Values (Domain) Typical Values Dr. Software Engineering. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.

it is transformed ‡ A transformation represents part of a system function ‡ Such flow and the attendant transformation can be captured using a model for data flow ‡ Represented using data flow diagrams Dr. Software Engineering.FLOW MODELING (DFD) IIT BOMBAY ‡ As information flows through A system. SRS 30 . Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.

Deepak B Phatak 31 cs634-Session 8. Software Engineering.Example of a Data Flow IIT BOMBAY Participant Reg-form Validate Registration Error List Pnext Roll-list Acct-master Faculty Enrollment-master Dr. SRS .

Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. Software Engineering. SRS 32 .Example of a Data Flow IIT BOMBAY Participant Reg-form Validate Registration Error List Pnext DF1 Roll-list Acct-master Validation Information Faculty Enrollment-master Dr.

DFD SYMBOLS IIT BOMBAY Donor External Entity Data Flow Process Data-Store 33 Acct-statement Check Expense Pledge-Info Dr. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. Software Engineering. SRS .

Represents the Algorithm or Program That Gets/Puts Data From/To Arrows and Contains Processing Specifications ‡ Store: Stores Data Dr. SRS 34 . Software Engineering. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.DFD SYMBOLS IIT BOMBAY ‡ External Entity: Source Or Consumer Of Information ‡ Arrow: Represents Flow of Data ‡ Process: Describes Transformation ‡ Ultimately.

Software Engineering.DFD Data Dictionary IIT BOMBAY ‡ Each Symbol Must Have An Associated Label ‡ Data Dictionary Entries Must Define That Label in Terms Of its Meta-Data ‡ Process Narrative (PSPEC) Must be Included Dr. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. SRS 35 .

Time-table slot. Course. Name. fees-payment status. SRS 36 . Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.Example Entries IIT BOMBAY ‡ Reg-Form ‡ Roll Number. Software Engineering. « Dr. CPI. « ‡ Validation-Information ‡ Input to Store: Roll-number ‡ Return From Store ‡ Name. Audit/Credit.

Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.CONTEXT DIAGRAM IIT BOMBAY ‡ Called level 0 DFD. or the fundamental system model ‡ Single bubble with incoming and outgoing arrows mainly showing the entities involved ‡ Functional partitioning further done to derive several level 1 DFDs Dr. SRS 37 . Software Engineering.

SRS 38 . Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8.Context Diagram Example IIT BOMBAY Participant-Info Course-Info Faculty-Info Remote-Centre-Info Participant-Grades CDEEP SYSTEM Course Contents Annual Revenue Dr. Software Engineering.

Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. SRS 39 .REFINEMENT IIT BOMBAY ‡ Expansion Of a Level 1 DFD To Add Detailed Processes ‡ Flow Continuity Necessary ‡ Expansion Must Have Same I/O Dr. Software Engineering.

USER INTERFACE IIT BOMBAY ‡ Modeling Interactive Screens ‡ Capture And Validate Input ‡ Query Retrieval ‡ Modeling Reports ‡ Contents and Format ‡ On Screen. SRS 40 . On Printer ‡ Special Interfaces Dr. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. Software Engineering.

Software Engineering. Deepak B Phatak cs634-Session 8. SRS 41 .USER INTERFACE IIT BOMBAY ‡ Screen And Forms Layouts ‡ Source And Target Stores ‡ Operational Considerations ‡ Ease Of Use (User Friendliness) ‡ Keystroke Minimization Dr.

Deepak B Phatak .SRS Document (Draft Contents) IIT BOMBAY ‡ Introduction ‡ Functional Specifications ‡ Data Models and Data Dictionary ‡ ER Model ‡ Data Flow Model ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ User Interface Requirements Interfaces to Other Systems Procedures and Workflow Acceptance Criteria Appendices cs634-Session 8. Software Engineering. SRS 42 Dr.

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