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Dyah Tribuanawati

Acoustic Impedance volume

Porosity volume

Seismic Inversion

Improve the definition of lithology boundaries by the resolution of the interpretation. The seismic data is now a rock property.

Acoustic Impedance from seismic data : Inverse process Remove wavelet and add low-frequency lowcomponent Interval property rather than boundary property Inversion itself does not deliver petrophysical properties .

the seismic trace is the result of convolving a reflectivity series with a wavelet.Seismic Inversion The object of using inversion is to convert the seismic section to more accurately represent the properties of the earth s layers. In reflection seismology. In seismic inverse modeling. the process is reversed Geophysical inversion involves mapping the physical structure and properties of the subsurface of the earth using measurements made on the surface of the earth possibly constrained by well log measurements .

essentially de-convolve it and end up with the reflectivity series. which we can then interpret as a cross-section of the subsurface in terms of its acoustic impedance distribution.Workflow of Seismic Inversion Beginning with the trace. . This reflectivity series is then displayed side-by-side as a set of pseudo-acoustic logs.

Forward Modeling Inverse Modeling Earth Model Seismic Response Model Algorithm Model Algorithm Seismic Response Earth Model .

Earth Forward Modelling * Wavelet convolution Seismic Inverse Modelling Seismic / Wavelet AI De-convolution .

Seismic Inversion for Reservoir Characterization .

Seismic Inversion : what is it ? .

Inversion is a non-unique process and there is not one method which is the best in all cases. . the underlying geology which gave rise to that seismic. Types of inversion: Band limited inversion Model-based inversion Sparse-spike inversion Model-based and sparse-spike inversion gave the most detailed results.Inversion is the process of extracting. from the seismic data.

from the seismic data. Another recent development is to use inversion results to directly predict lithology parameters such as porosity and water saturation . Traditionally. the underlying geology which gave rise to that seismic.Inversion is the process of extracting. inversion has been applied to post-stack seismic data. with the aim of extracting acoustic impedance volumes.

Workflow for Acoustic Impedance (P-Impedance) (PSeismic Wavelet Logs (Density & Velocity) Constrains Seismic Horizons Low frequency model or initial model P-Impedances .

Sparse spike Inversion workflow Full Stack P-Impedance Horizons Constrained Sparse spike inversion Calibrated Logs Porosity Distribution .

Full Stack

CSSI workflow

Angle Stack

Existing Horizon

SADI workflow

Shear Modeling Well Logs

SI workflow

Calibrated Logs

Shear Logs

**Simultaneous Inversion Workflow
**

Full Stack Angle Stack

CSSI (constrained Sparse Spike Inversion

SADI Property

Calibrated Logs

Integrated Horizons, Logs and Seismic

Simultaneous Inversion

Rock Properties

Shear Synthetics

Horizons

**Simultaneous SADI workflow
**

Seismic 0-10deg Seismic 10-20 deg Seismic 20-32 deg

Wavelet

Wavelet

Wavelet

Logs

EI logs

EI logs

EI logs

Vp/Vs

**P-impedance S-impedance Density
**

Poisson ratio

**Constrains & Low Frequency
**

MuRho

Horizons

Lambda-Rho

StatMod workflow using AI CSSI impedance Detailed earth model Revised horizons Probability model SIS Lithology Pay sand probability Logs Histogram & Variogram Synthetic Vp/Vs Wavelets Lithology Classification Vp/Vs cube .

diagenesis Pressure Fluid type (oil. gas. age.Subsurface Properties Estimate from seismic : Lithofacies Porosity Depth. water) Saturation Permeability .

VelocityVelocity-Rock Property General Relations .

.

Porosity .Geological implication of Vp .

AI-Vp/Vs relation of sandstone .

Well Seismic Tie Seismic data Acoustic Impedance Well Log data Top Reservoir Stochastic Inversion provides resolution comparable to well logs .

Re-build P-Sonic and SSonic data at the missing area. Petrophysical Analysis Rock Physics Modeling . fill gaps. log editing. Compensate for fluid invasion for the well data.Well Data Preparation Workflow and QC well log data for availability. Petrophysical analysis are doing to get best correlation of synthesis well data to seismic data. remove invalid values. SSonic and Vp/Vs value. To load Data Loading. QC and Selection quality and consistency. depth alignment and normalize if necessary. Porosity and Saturation for the input of rock physics. Log Conditioning To compensate for borehole rugosity (washouts). P-Sonic. spikes. To produce Vclay. Improve data quality for Density.

Petrophysics / Rockphysics Overview Well log data play a critical role in quantitative seismic reservoir characterization Some usage of well log data: data: Wavelet estimation Low frequency model building Deriving relationship between rock properties (elastic) and reservoir (petrophysical) properties (petrophysical) .

obvious/spike. Sonic. Deep Resistivity.Log Conditioning Normally in washout/rugose area and missing data. Create synthetic curve using Neutron. No conditioning in reservoir or sand unless too obvious/spike. Gamma Ray and density or P-Sonic. washout/rugose data. .

Petrophysics VCL. PHIT. PHIE and Sw calculation only reservoir interval (generate synthetic-seismic correlation for syntheticwavelet extraction) .

Shear Impedance and Density. interpretation. To improve the definition of lithologic boundaries by doubling the resolution of the interpretation. The seismic data is now a rock property. . property. To return the rock properties of Acoustic Impedances. Density.

Incorporation of low frequencies not contained in the seismic data. lobes. Accurate rock property modeling. tuning and side lobes. as impedance can be related to several key rock / petrophysical properties such as porosity. producing more hydrocarbons with fewer. saturation.Benefit Inversion of seismic data to impedance improves exploration and reservoir management success. members. Among the improvements are: are: Higher resolution through reduction of the wavelet effects. Increase asset team interaction through the use of layer based (versus interface) acoustic impedance models that are readily understood by all asset team members. more highly productive wells. lithology and water saturation. data. . wells.

. profitability. Through rigorous tying of the wells to the seismic and estimation of the waveform that is in the earth and the seismic inversion of the data back to well control.Benefit Better understanding of the accuracy of seismic data. interpretations. quality and quality of input data. data. interpretations. the asset team can better understand accuracy and consistency of their input data. Since drilling costs account for the majority of the total E&P costs. reducing the number of wells required to exploit a field will have a significant impact on profitability. well log data.

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Example and Case Study .

Seismic vs Acoustic Impedance .

Count 80 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 5 5000-9000 16000-17000 Lithology Impedance Selatan A-6 Lithology Impedance Lithology vs Acoustic Im pedance P Impedance SAND AREA 01 -90 90 00 01 -10 00 10 00 0 1-1 11 1 00 00 0 1-1 12 2 00 00 0 1-1 13 3 00 00 0 1-1 14 4 00 00 0 1-1 15 5 00 00 0 1-1 16 6 00 00 0 1-1 17 7 00 00 0 1-1 18 8 00 00 0 1-1 19 9 00 00 0 1-2 20 0 00 00 0 1-2 21 1 00 00 0 1-2 22 2 00 00 0 1-2 23 3 00 00 0 1-2 24 4 00 00 0 1-2 25 5 00 00 0 1-2 26 6 00 00 0 1-2 27 7 00 00 0 1-2 80 00 21000-22000 coal sand shale carb. shale 27000-28000 .

Acoustic Impedance section A B A B Line Section B AI anomaly A .

A B channels B A .

C D Gita Channel ? Line section B D C .

A B A B .

?? .

E F Line Section E F .

X Y Y X .

0 SP (mV) -80.7 3200 3150 SES_TAF Shaly sand 3250 3200 3300 3250 3350 3300 3400 3350 3450 Distributary channel 3500 3400 Tidal channels 3450 3550 3500 3600 3550 .0 60.m) 0.0 RHOB (g/cm3) 1.0 20.0 2.2 20.Acoustic Impedance map below TAF window 10 20ms DEPTH_15 GR (gAPI) 0.7 0.0 TVDSS NPHI (pu) TOP_15 ILD (ohm.0 150.

Introduction Petrophysics and Rockphysics Seismic Inversion Analysis .

7755 +90 -90 -90 ¤ Corr.8899 Corr.4745 ¥£ ¤ EI(08) Corr.= 0.= 0.= 0.Wavelet Extraction +90 + 0 Phase = 0 se = 0 -90 Time = 0 Time = 0 EI(13) +90 EI(13) ¨§ + 0 P ase = 0 Phase = 0 -90 -90 Time = 0 Time = 0 +90 P ase = 0 Phase = 0 -90 Time = 0 Time = 0 EI(20) Corr.8715 +90 Phase = 0 EI(20) Corr.= 0.= 0.= 0.8 57 ¢¡ ¥¤¦ .= 0.= 0.7750 +90 P ase = 0 -90 Time = 0 Time = 0 © ¨ ¨ EI(18) Corr.8915 EI(18) Corr.8994 EI(08) Corr.

Preliminary Wavelet Estimation Angle Stack Amplitude Spectrum of the extracted Wavelet hase Spectrum of the extracted Wavelet Extracted Wavelet .

Preliminary Seismic Well ties Near upper Near lower Upper Lower impedance Vp/Vs .

) (near = 8deg.Preliminary Seismic Well ties Seismic Trace Synthetic Seismogram Near (Angle Stack 5 11deg.) Calculated from RHOB-conditioned Vp_sonic-log Vs_sonic-log Extracted Wavelet impedance Synthetic Seismic Correlation Time correlation of Sonic D T Vp/Vs Versus moving time gate/location to VS D T Sw .

Seismic Reservoir Characterization work in 2004 3D Seismic Data (Angle Stacks) Well-logs Core Data Petrophysical Analysis Rock Physics Modeling Seismic Inversion (Elastic Impedance . IND-SH) . EI) 3D Lithofacies Prediction (PHIT.

IND SH) IND- .Seismic Inversion ilot Study in 200 3D Seismic Data 3D Seismic Data (Angle Stacks) (Angle Stacks) GS 2001 Well-logs Core Data etrophysical Analysis Rock hysics Modeling Seismic Inversion Seismic Inversion (Simultaneous Inversion ± Ip. Vp/Vs) 3D3D Lithofacies rediction HIT.EI) (Elastic Impedance . VCL. -HIE) Lithofacies rediction ( ( HIT. Is.

Vp/Vs) 3D3D Lithofacies Prediction (PHIT. VCL. Is. IND-SH) Lithofacies Prediction (PHIT. PHIE) IND- .Seismic Inversion Pilot Study in 200 3D Seismic Data 3D Seismic Data (Angle Stacks) (Angle Stacks) PGS 2001 Well-logs Core Data Petrophysical Analysis Rock Physics Modeling Seismic Inversion Seismic Inversion (Simultaneous Inversion ± Ip.EI) (Elastic Impedance .

(Shale Indicator) INPEX .Reservoir Characterization work Rock Physics Modeling EI-6deg. PHIT (Total Porosity) IND_SH EI-22deg. EI-1 deg.

Vs.Vs). water etc.Vp. (Theoretical Formula) (Experimental Relations) wet of Pore Fluids (Gas.) Xu and White (1995) Vpwet Vswet ma dry Water Saturated Rock Vpma Vsma Vpdry Vsdry gas Matrix Matrix + Dry Pore (Solid Mineral Mixture) Vpgas Vsgas Gas Saturated Rock . Velocity(Vp.Work-flow of the Rock Physics Modeling (INPUT) VOLUME Fraction (from Petrophysics) Density( ). (OUTPUT) ³Modeled´ . Vs b Vp.

Shallow Neutron. Density RHOBCN RHOB InpexModel .PETROPHYSICS RESULT VCL-1 VCL-2 Sw-Jason Caliper Gamma Ray Deep Rest.

Low Frequency Velocity Model (Initial Model for Seismic Inversion) Well-1 Well-2 .

IND-SH) Lithofacies Prediction (PHIT.Seismic Inversion Pilot Study in 2006 3D Seismic Data 3D Seismic Data (Angle Stacks) (Angle Stacks) PGS 2001 Well-logs Core Data Petrophysical Analysis Rock Physics Modeling Seismic Inversion Seismic Inversion (Simultaneous Inversion ± Ip. Vp/Vs) 3D3D Lithofacies Prediction (PHIT. VCL. PHIE) IND- .EI) (Elastic Impedance . Is.

VCL predicted from Inverted Ip and Vp/Vs .

PHIT predicted from Inverted Well-1 Well-1 .

PHIE predicted from PHIE=PHIT-0.157*VCL Well-1 Well-1 .

Overview Reservoir Characterization Seismic to Reservoir Property .

Geoscientist vs Geostatistician Geoscientist Creates a map that is assumed to be correct until additional information becomes available Geostatistician Creates an expected value or average map and has a quantitative estimate of its accuracy .

Geostatistics provides a toolbox for the geologist to use in analyzing data and transferring such analysis and interpretation to the task of reservoir forecasting. .INTRODUCTION Geo clearly links geostatistics to the earth sciences. particularly in geology. A tool can never replace data. but it can help build an interpretation and the corresponding numerical model. The application of statistical methods in the earth sciences.

Geostatistics To be applied to quantitatively relate well and seismic data. estimate the probability of success from the available data . assess the quality of the resulting map.

. Semivariogram is required any geostatistical procedure for prediction away from well controls. Modeling and Usage Semivariogram is a measure of the rate of change with distance for attributes that vary in space.Fundamentals of Semivariogram Estimation.

4 step procedures for Statistical tools To quantify the spatial continuity of the well data using Variogram Analysis To find and quantify a relationship between well and seismic data To use what has been learned to grid the well data using the seismic data as a guide via Kriging with external drift To assess the accuracy of the map just made .

Overview of geostatistics Variogram Kriging Kriging with external drift Cokriging The geostatistical method give the methodology for quantitatively determining the spatial characteristics or geologic variables prior to countouring .

crossplot. variances. geophysics trying to find relationship between sparse well data and relatively dense seismic data. The assessment of risk is perhaps the greatest leap forward that geostatistics provides in solving mapping problems. data. analysis.Geostatistical Method Learn from the data through simple statistical data analysis (mean. Find relationship between data sets through crossplot. min and max values. histogram plot) and variogram analysis. Derived map based on Kriging and Cokriging Assess the accuracy/error/risk of the map step 3. problems. .

Variogram A Variogram is a graph that is used to express the spatial continuity of a regionalized (mappable) variable. * Variance * * * * * * * * * * Best fit line = Variogram Model Range Map distance between data points . It is a crossplot of the average squared difference of the variable of interest between all data pairs a given distance apart (variance) versus distance apart.

Semivariogram model 1.5 Lag 1 1.5 .5 Spherical Semivariogram 1 Linear 0.5 Exponential 0 0 0.

or the breakover point from the correlated to uncorrelated zone of the variogram . Range.Variogram The key parameters that describe the variogram are : Nugget effect or the value of the model at zero distance Sill or the variance of the data Range.

Variogram analysis can be used to identify and quantity the fact that spatial continuity can be longer in one direction than another (anisotropic) in the control points via directional variograms. the grid values would not honor the well data.Variogram Analysis The Nugget is a gauge of measurement uncertainty. data. variograms. The direction and magnitude of the isotropy/anisotropy can be used in subsequent steps of the geostatistical method . If it uncertainty. zero then the data would be honored exactly.

Finding relationship Find the relationship between seismic (soft data) and well data (hard data). Crossploting of the well variable and the seismic variable at the well location will sometimes lead co-kriging. to finding usable relationship for co-kriging. .

The Nugget quantifies measurement inconsistency and the range is the break point between correlated and uncorrelated data .Calculated from Data points * Sill C1 * * * * * * * * Variogram model Range Nugget C2 Distance Parts of Variogram model.

Note the Cross-variogram model in addition to variogram models.Well data (Hard data) Cokriging using well and seismic data. Variogram model Cross variogram model Cokriging Cokriged map Seismic data (Soft data) Variogram model .

Well data (Hard data) Variogram model KED Map Kriging with External Drift Seismic data (Soft data) Kriging with External Drift (KED) uses well data and its variogram with seismic data .

Variance 7000 * 3 km 2 km 1 km * 7400 Point to be kriged 1 2 3 km 7100 * Variogram model .

Kriging vs Cokriging Kriging is a gridding algorithm that estimates a grid value such that for the parameter of interest. the squared difference between the grid node value and the surrounding control points is consistent CoCo-kriging looks at not only spatial relationship in the data to be gridded (porosity data as a hard data) but also spatial relationship in a second denser data set (Seismic as a soft data) .

thus eliminating systematic overestimation or underestimation error. points. error.Kriging is mathematically achieved by calculating the grid value as a weighted average of the surrounding control points. Kriging takes into account the distance between control points and the grid note to be calculated and how close the control points are to each other (declustering) and maintains the declustering) spatial relationship given by the variogram model. The weights are assigned in such a way as to minimize the variance in the least squares sense. model. .

Co-kriging CoCo-kriging calculates a grid value as a weighted average of control and guide points. CoCo-kriging takes into account how far the control and guide points are from the grid point to be computed and how close control and guide data CoCo-kriging also honors spatial relationships found in the variogram for the control data and guide data and in the cross variogram between control data and guide data data . points.

South Sumatra.T. Indonesia. to build a porosity model for use in flow simulation and reserve assessment and to evaluate uncertainty in reserve estimation. P. Exspan Sumatera. Indonesia. followed by geological interpretation and Seismic Inversion modeling using wavelet estimation from a number of wells near the build-up. The work was designed to aid prediction of the lateral extent of the reservoir. . South Sumatra. Indonesia An integrated reservoir modeling study of the Baturaja Limestone has been conducted using 2-D seismic data from Kaji-Semoga Field.ABSTRACT: Reservoir characterization in Kaji-Semoga Field. Jakarta. using seismic inversion and geostatistical approach Tribuanawati. Dyah . The method involved study of seismic attributes.

Co-kriging was initially tested on a numerically simulated reservoir model and compared with kriging.Several geo-statistical techniques for integrating well log porosity with quantitative average porosity derived from a constrained sparse spike inversion method were applied in the reservoir modeling. then a conventional least squares product technique relying only on local correlation between porosity and acoustic impedance was applied. . The spatial distribution of porosity in inter-well regions has been estimated based on variogram ranges and azimuth. Continuous petrophysical properties within each facies type were determined by application of kriging and co-kriging mapping simulation methods.

As compared to kriging. Indonesia . sparse spike inversion can be used in conjunction with geo-statistical methods to obtain a more complete reservoir description. AAPG Search and Discovery Article #90913©2000 AAPG International Conference and Exhibition. Bali. the seismically assisted geo-statistical method detects subtle lateral variations in porosity that cannot be mapped from sparse well data alone. The result of the study shows that if a reservoir is seismically resolved and properly imaged.

such as Acoustic Impedance from Seismic data can significantly reduce inter-well interestimation uncertainty. development and mature field development phases were designed to illustrate the impact of using seismic data as a secondary variable to constrain a reservoir description. The integration of secondary data sets. description. uncertainty. Geostatistical methods are available that provide fundamental framework for quantitative data integration the .Conclusion Reservoir scenarios representative of late exploration/appraisal.

Conclusion The most important benefits of geostatistical methods is the availability to assess uncertainty associated with kriging and cokriging using stochastic methods. methods. .

Example and Sample Case

Variogram model to derived sand package

Function Spherical Exponential

Sill 0.4 0.6

X-Range Y-Range Z-Range 400 ft 400 ft 30 ft 2000 ft 2000 ft 30 ft

Rock Fluid Index Sand probability .

Sand probability .

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Vp/Vs .

Paysand probability .

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Thickness Map .

Thickness Map .

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