Ahmed Osama Khattab

Mohamed Hatem Shams
Mohamed Yosry Mohamed
BURJ KHALIFA
ontents
Lateral Loads 4
Long-Term Effects and Construction Sequence 5
1 Structural Analysis and Design 2
Structural System 11
Foundations 3
ontents

10
1 Concrete Material 7
Coupling Beams and Outriggers 16
Construction 8
StructuraI System
Designers purposely shaped the structural
concrete Burj Dubai÷'Y' shaped in plan÷to
reduce the Wind Forces.
StructuraI System
The structural system can be described as a
'buttressed' core
StructuraI System
The center hexagonal reinforced concrete core
walls provide the torsional resistance.
StructuraI System
The center hexagonal walls are buttressed by the
wing walls and hammerhead walls, which behave
as the webs and flanges of a beam to resist the
wind shears and moments.
StructuraI System
Outriggers at the mechanical floors allow the
columns to participate in the lateral load resistance
of the structure; hence, all of the vertical concrete
is utilized to support both gravity and lateral loads.
StructuraI AnaIysis and Design
The structure was analyzed for gravity
(including P-A analysis), wind, and seismic
loads using ETABS version 8.4. The model
consisted of the reinforced concrete walls,
link beams, slabs, raft, piles, and the spire
structural steel system
StructuraI AnaIysis and Design
The dynamic analysis indicated the first mode is lateral side-sway
with a period of 11.3 s (Figure 5). The second mode is a
perpendicular lateral side-sway with a period of 10.2 s. Torsion is
the fifth mode with a period of 4.3 s.
StructuraI AnaIysis and Design
&nder lateral wind loading, the building deflections are
well below commonly used criteria.
StructuraI AnaIysis and Design
The reinforced concrete structure was designed in
accordance with the requirements of ACÌ 318÷02
The structural steel spire was designed for gravity,
wind, seismic and fatigue in accordance with the
requirements of AÌSC Load and Resistance Factor
Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
(1).
The Dubai Municipality (DM) specifies Dubai as a
&BC7 Zone 2a seismic region (with a seismic zone
factor Z = 0.15 and soil profile S
c
).
StructuraI AnaIysis and Design
Dr. Max Ìrvine developed site-specific seismic reports
for the project, including a seismic hazard analysis.
The potential for liquefaction was investigated; it was
determined that liquefaction is not considered to have
any structural implications for the deep-seated tower
foundations.
Foundations
The tower foundations consist of a pile-supported raft.
The solid reinforced concrete raft is 3.7 m (12 ft) thick
and was poured utilizing C50 (cube strength) self-
consolidating concrete (SCC).
The raft was constructed in four separate pours (three
wings and the center core).
Foundations
The tower raft is supported by 14 bored cast-in-place
piles. The piles are 1.5 m in diameter and
approximately 43 m long, with a design capacity of
3000 tonnes each. The tower pile load test supported
over 6000 tonnes
Foundations
The site geotechnical investigation consisted of the
following phases:
· Phase 1: 23 boreholes (three with pressure meter
testing) with depths up to 0 m;
· Phase 2: three boreholes drilled with cross-hole
geophysics;
· Phase 3: six boreholes (two with pressure meter
testing) with depths up to 60 m.
· Phase 4: one borehole with cross-hole and down-
hole geophysics; depth = 140 m.
Foundations
The groundwater in which the Burj Dubai substructure is
constructed is particularly severe, with chloride concentrations of
up to 4.5% and sulfates of up to 0.6%, higher than sea water
The concrete mix for the piles was a 60 MPa with 25% fly ash, 7%
silica fume, and a water:cement ratio of 0.32. The concrete was a
fully self-consolidating concrete to limit the possibility of defects
during construction.
ind Engineering
The wind tunnel program included:
rigid-model force balance tests
full multi-degree of freedom aeroelastic model studies
measurements of localized pressures
pedestrian wind environment studies
and wind climatic studies.
ind Engineering
The aeroelastic and force balance studies used models mostly at
1 : 500 scale
The building has six important wind directions
ind Engineering
Force BaIance Test
For the Burj Dubai the results of the force balance tests were used
as early input for the structural design and detailed shape of the
tower.
ind Engineering
Ìt was noticed that the force spectra for different wind directions
showed less excitation for winds impacting the pointed end
This was borne in mind when selecting the orientation of the tower
relative to the most frequent strong wind directions for Dubai and
the direction of the set backs.
ind Engineering
Vortex Shedding is an unsteady flow that takes place in
special flow velocities (according to the size and shape of the
cylindrical body). Ìn this flow, vortices are created at the back of
the body and detach periodically from either side of the body
ind Engineering
Vortex Shedding is an unsteady flow that takes place in
special flow velocities (according to the size and shape of the
cylindrical body). Ìn this flow, vortices are created at the back of
the body and detach periodically from either side of the body
ind Engineering
AeroeIasticity The study of the mutual interaction that takes
place within the triangle of the inertial, elastic, and aerodynamic
forces acting on structural members exposed to an airstream, and
the influence of this study on design.¨ simply, it is the same set of
conditions causing a flag to flutter, or a reed to tremble in fast-
flowing water.
ind Engineering
AeroeIasticity
ind Engineering
ind Engineering
These are wind tunnel results for a 400ft building compared to
ASCE loads, the wind tunnel loads are less than the code loads
for the majority of the building. The wind tunnel method has also
improved design safety by identifying higher loading for the
structure.
Long Term and onstruction Sequence
AnaIysis
The creep and shrinkage prediction approach is based on the
Gardner÷Lockman GL2000 (Gardner, 2004) model with additional
equations to incorporate the effects of reinforcement and complex
loading history.
15 separate three-dimensional finite-element analysis models,
each representing a discrete time during construction
Long Term and onstruction Sequence
AnaIysis
Long-term creep and shrinkage testing, over one year in duration,
have been performed by the CTL Group, under contract with
Samsung, on concrete specimens to better understand the actual
behavior of the concrete utilized for the project.
Long Term and onstruction Sequence
AnaIysis
Design onsiderations:
'ertical Members were sized such that the self-weight gravity
stress on the perimeter columns matched the stress on the
interior corridor walls.
Since the shrinkage in concrete occurs more quickly in thinner
walls or columns, the perimeter column thickness of 600 mm
(24 in.) matched the typical corridor wall thickness
The five sets of outriggers, distributed up the building, tie all
the vertical members
Long Term and onstruction Sequence
AnaIysis
ompensation methodoIogy:
For horizontal compensation, the building is being re-
centered with each successive center hex core jump. The re-
centering compensation will correct for all gravity-induced
side-sway effects (elastic, differential foundation settlement,
creep, and shrinkage) which occur up to the casting of each
story.
For vertical compensation, each story is being constructed
incorporating a modest increase in the typical floor-to-floor
height.
Long Term and onstruction Sequence
AnaIysis
Concrete creeps and shrinks, so the rebar must attract additional
compressive stress
Long Term and onstruction Sequence
AnaIysis
Gravity-induced horizontaI side-sway is extremeIy sensitive
to the foIIowing:
· Differential foundation settlements
· Construction sequence
· Differential gravity loading
· 'ariations in the concrete material properties
onstruction Sequence
onstruction Sequence
onstruction Sequence
onstruction Sequence- ranes and oncrete
PIacement Booms
onstruction Sequence- ranes
onstruction Sequence- ranes DismantIing
onstruction Sequence- ranes DismantIing
onstruction Sequence- oncrete Pumping
onstruction Sequence- oncrete Pumping
onstruction Sequence- Surveying and
Monitoring
Lower levels (classical)
Higher Levels (GPS)
onstruction Sequence- Surveying and
Monitoring
onstruction Sequence- Surveying and
Monitoring
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2001 2002 2003

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Phase 1 Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 3
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Ahmed Osama Khattab
Mohamed Hatem Shams
Mohamed Yosry Mohamed
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