ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY

PSYCHOLOGY
It is the study of man with the aid of scientific methodology. It uses the experimental methodmethodObservation under controlled conditions- to conditionsgather data. It also uses other methods of data collection such as case history method, longitudinal study of development as it takes place. In psychological study perceptions, emotions, cognition, personality, behaviour, interpersonal relations etc are studied. It helps in the treatment of mental health problems as well as introducing improvements in the existing state of mind/system.

INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY
The branch of applied psychology that is concerned with efficient management of an industrial labor force and especially with problems encountered by workers in a mechanized environment. environment.

Its study is gaining popularity because it tries to understand the human problems that have arisen as a result of tremendous expansion of industry in the present era of liberalization. without any strife or tension is bound to fail if due consideration is not given to the psychology of these workers.ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY There is growing concern among all those who are concerned with business & industry that the human beings occupy a central place in all sorts of industrial activities & any attempt to run them efficiently. privatization & globalization. smoothly. .

.METHODS: ± Experimentation ± Observation methods ± Surveys ± Field studies ± Developmental methods ± Case studies Industrial psychology can be termed as applied psychology as it is mainly concerned with the application of the facts and principles of psychology to the behaviour of man working in the industry.

likes. beliefs.NATURE OF ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY It is developing into a universal phenomenon It involves human beings/workers working in the industries It involves the use of advanced psychological techniques for solving the problems of the industry It involves the study of the values. dislikes of the workers It requires specialized knowledge as a psychologist It aims at having deep understanding of man and his behaviour It is a very complex field of study It involves applied psychology . attitudes.

engineering psychology. ventilation etc) Management: development of managerial skills Accident prevention and safety measures Labour relations . organizational psychology etc Personnel selection: developing the instruments. consumer psychology. improving environmental conditions(proper light. attitude measurement.SCOPE OF ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY It involves various sub fields like personnel psychology. employee counseling etc Human engineering: suggesting changes in designs of the machines for achieving ease of operation Productivity study: activities concerned with reducing fatigue. techniques of personnel selection Personnel development: developing methods for performance appraisal. managerial psychology.

industrialTo understand the relationship between industrialindustrial-organizational psychology and human resource management. To study the industrial-organizational process. To understand the relationship between industrialindustrial-organizational psychology to organizational science.OBJECTIVES OF ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY To know the important aspects of industrialindustrialorganizational functioning. .

To understand the role of industrialindustrialorganizational psychology in developing employee training and education programs.To understand the relationship between industrialindustrial-organizational psychology and human cognitive processes. programs. To understand the role of industrialindustrialorganizational psychology in developing leadership and management training and education programs. . programs. processes.

place. To understand the role of industrialindustrialorganizational psychology in promoting safety in the workplace. workplace. .To understand the role of industrialindustrialorganizational psychology in conducting various types of evaluations in the work place.

Increasing production Promoting harmonious relationship among workers Creating better understanding between labour and management .

. Resistance to change: Employees and the employers are often resistant to change their attitudes. Communication: the language of the psychologist should match the language understood by the workers.MAJOR PROBLEMS OF ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY Defining the role of the psychologist: should he be termed as the consultant or the staff psychologist.

Understanding the complex nature of human beings Checking personal bias on the part of the psychologist .

people. So.´ another. behaviour. unlike. psychology.INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND THEIR EVALUATION Individual differences is a cornerstone subject area in modern psychology. yet no two people are unlike. in the study of individual differences we strive to understand ways in which people are psychologically similar and particularly what psychological characteristics vary between people. Individual difference psychology examines how people are similar and how they differ in their thinking. one being suited for one occupation and the other for another. No two people are alike. natural endowments. . Plato stated more than 2000 years ago: ³No two persons ago: are born exactly alike. feeling and behaviour. but each differs from the other in alike.

it is generally assumed that:  People vary on a range of psychological attributes  It is possible to measure and study these individual differences  individual differences are useful for explaining and predicting behaviour and performance .In the Western psychology approach to individual differences.

etc. for example. according to their intelligence and personality characteristics.We can classify people psychologically. with moderate success. Human beings have been aware of individual differences throughout history. class. e.  Gender differences -hunters=men.caste. however people are complex and much is still left unexplained. gatherers=women  Intelligence differences .  Personality differences .g.job specialisations . education.

         Individual differences research typically includes Personality Motivation Intelligence Mental Ability IQ interests Values selfself-concept selfself-esteem .

frank SCHIZOTHYMIA: reserved.TYPES OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES CYCLOTHYMIA: emotionally expressive. closeclosemouthed GENERAL MENTAL MENTAL DEFECT CAPACITY: intelligent. assertive EMOTIONALLY STABLE: realistic about life NEUROTIC EMOTIONALITY: immature . smart.

submissive SURGENCY: cheerful.DOMINANCE: SUBMISSIVENESS: confident. DESURGENCY: joyous depressed. aggressive unsure.pessimistic POSITIVE CHARACTER: attentive to people ADVENTUROUS CYLOTHYMIA: likes meeting people DEPENDENT CHARACTER: neglectful of social chores WITHDRAWN SCHIZOTHYMIA:shy .

clumsy PARANCIS: suspicious. attentive to people .SENSITIVE: MATURE: self dependent. cool BOORISHNESS: awkward. understanding SOPHISTICATION: logical mind. jealous SIMPLICITY: sentimental mind. crude. composed TRUSTFUL CYCLOTHYMIA: trustful. immature sufficient. CULTURED MIND: polished. tough SOCIALIZED.

EVALUATION OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES NEED FOR EVALUATION: Determining the worth of employees Salary structure Promotion Transfer Need for training & development Determining the appropriate methods of training & development  Employees get chance to improve their performance       .

number of units sold For higher level & managerial jobs criteria setting is difficult For effective evaluation multifactor or multiple criterion is used. sound & scientific For proper evaluation a set criterion or evaluation standard needs to be set CriterionCriterion.number of items produced.Evaluation system should be made objective. .

EVALUATION SITUATION:  Training  Actual job  Simulated .

TECHNIQUE/METHOD OF EVALUATION: Rate of work Quality of work Accident & breakage Job knowledge Job tenure Absenteeism Rate of improvement/advancement Supervisory judgment Peer judgment Self judgment .

JUDGMENTAL METHODS OF EVALUATION RANKING METHODS: RATEE RATER RATER 1 2 Ja riti 1 3 RATER 3 2 Mean rank 2 Kanwar 3 1 3 2.3 .

PAIRED COMPARISON: Deepti Deepti Roopal Manpreet 0 0 0 Roopal Manpreet .

MAN TO MAN RATING HOW EFFICIENT IS AVNISH? RICHA MANJOT NEHA high middle low .

FORCED CHOICE Punctual Always Sometimes Never .

GRAPHIC RATING Efficiency Very efficient Average Very inefficient .

CHECKLIST METHOD Efficient Aggressive Friendly Punctual Selfish ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- .

COMMON EVALUATION ERRORS Error of leniency: rater may give very high ratings to all Error of central tendency: average score to all Halo error/effect: single positive trait leads to positive scores on all the dimensions Contrast error: rater considers others to be opposite of his own character. Eg: others are not as honest as I am. .

way of talking etc .Similarity error: others are also equally honest as I am Constant error: different raters may have different set of rating standards Recency error: generally recent behaviour of employee is considered at the time of rating Personal bias & prejudice Subjectivity Expectations: expected dress of the employee.

ideas one. peas. as to the means of this transmission and its malleability by environmental influences have changed. PresentPresent-day ideas are grounded in research on genetics (a term first coined in 1905 for the science of heredity) that has its origins in Mendel's classic studies crosscross-breeding peas. . like¶). changed. However. The idea of biologically transmitted similarities is an old one.ROLE OF HEREDITY & ENVIRONMENT IN INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES The passing down by genetic transmission of the characteristics of plants or animals from one generation to the next (µlike begetting like¶).

The impact of such ideas on the study of human behaviour was considerable Francis Galton. intelligence. He also introduced the term eugenics for the body of knowledge that could be used to direct human evolution . occur. a cousin of Darwin.This and other research provided the missing link in Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection by specifying the mechanism through which species variation and similarity could occur. explored the role of heredity in accounting for individual differences in personality and intelligence.

attention. has continued the attempt to assess the relative contributions of genetics and environment in the causation of human characteristics and behaviour. with individual differences receiving much of the research attention. whilst the attempt to quantify the genetic or environmental contribution to differences between individuals continues . considerable. Twin studies. although the methodological difficulties are considerable. comparing monozygotic or MZ (identical) twins with dizygotic or DZ (non(non-identical) twins have been widely employed.Heredity and environment in an exhaustive specification of causal factors. However.

behaviour. most psychology researchers are in agreement that heredity and environment both play significant roles in the development of various human traits .There is increasing recognition that both genetics and environment are essential to all human behaviour.

Researchers may disagree. researchers have had very limited success in identifying specific genetic patterns that influence particular psychological and behavioral characteristics . on the extent to which heredity and environment contribute to the development of a particular dimension. however. and on how various factors may affect each other to create a certain human characteristic Unfortunately.

an identical environment can elicit different reactions in different individuals. due to variations in their genetic predispositions increasing intellectual stimulation should help increase cognitive performances of some children .

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