You are on page 1of 19

IMMUNITY

By
Dr. M.Anthony David.MD.
Professor of Physiology

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 1
ROMAN SOLDIERS

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 2
IMMUNITY: INTRODUCTION
 Roma n so ldie rs: “ Im mu nos ” E xem pt
from payi ng ta xes .

 Immu nity mea ns exe mpti on fro m:


 Infecti on s/I nfestati ons
 Rogue cells/ Car cinoi mas
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 3
INFECTIONS
 Infections include
invasions of body by
 Prions: Creuzfield

Jakob Disease
(BSE)
 Viruses: Polio

(Poliomyelitis), TB
(M.tuberculosis)
 Bacteria: Typhoid

( Salmonella tyhphi)
 Protozoa: Malaria

(Plasmodium
vivax) NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 4
INFESTATIONS & CARCINOMAS

 Infestations: Helminths or
worms: Hookworm.
 Carcinomas: Cancers: Rogue
cells which lose their self-
control.

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 5
IMMUNITY: TYPES

 1. I nn ate : Intri nsic No n s pecifi c.


 2. A cquired : N atu ral ( Spec ific ) :
 Ce ll Me diated Immunit y
 Humo ral Immunit y

 3. A rti fic ial Ac qu ire d Imm uni ty


 Pas sive typ e
 Ac tive typ e.

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 6
1. INNATE IMMUNITY
 Intact Sk in : Re si sts i nvasio n
 Phag ocyto si s
 Lysi s i n th e Ga stro In test inal
Tr ac t:
 Hyd rochlo ric Acid.
 Enz ymes
 Bl ood borne:
 Lys oz ymes .
 Bas ic P ol yp ep tid es.
 Co mp le ment Co mp le x.
 Natural K iller L ymp ho cytes
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 7
2. NATURAL SPECIFIC
ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
IS OF TWO TYPES: HUMORAL
CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY
IMMUNITY:  Antibodies

 Immune produced when


response by challenged.
cells,  They are

lymphocytes. Immunoglobuli
 Is the function ns
of T  B Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes. become Plasma


 Is longer cells & secrete 8
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity
Antibodies.
2. ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
(NATURAL)
BONE MARRO W: LYMP HOCYTE
PRECURSO R CELLS

 T LYMPHOCYTES  B LYMPHOCYTES
 MEMORY T CELLS  MEMORY B CELLS
 CYTOTOXIC T CELLS  PLASMA CELLS:

 SUPPRESSOR CELLS IMMUNOGLOBULINS:


 NATURAL KILLER  G, A, M, E, D.

CELLS
HUMORAL IMMUNITY
CELLULAR OR
CELL-MEDIATED
IMMUNITY
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 9
3.ARTIFICIAL ACQUIRED
IMMUNITY
 IMMUNISATIONS:
 TWO TYPES:
 ACTIVE
 It stimulates the body immune
response
 Example: Oral Polio Virus Drops
 PASSIVE
 It delivers readymade antibodies
 Example: ATS: Anti Tetanus Serum
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 10
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 11
AN ANTIBODY:
IMMUNOGLOBULIN

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 12
How do antibodies act?
 DIRECT ACTION ON INVADERS:
 AGGLUTINATION.
 PRECIPITATION.
 NEUTRALIZATION.
 LYSIS.
 THROUGH ACTIVATION OF THE
COMPLEMENT SYSTEM:
 Classic complement cascade:
amplified
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 13
256
248
240

THE IMMUNE RESPONSE


232
224
216
208
200
192
184
176
168
Antibody Titres

160
152

Secondary
144
136
128

Primary
120
112
104
96
88
80
72
64
56
48
40
32
24
16
8
0

Time in Weeks
ANT IGE NI C CHALLENGE
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 14
What a re the d iff ere nces in
the two re spon se s?
1. LATENT PERIOD :
 More in Primary response
2. POTENCY OR MAGNITUDE OF
RESPONSE:
 More potent in the Secondary response.
3. DURATION OF RESPONSE:
 Longer in case of Secondary response.

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 15
TRAINED T LYMPHOCYTES

 DO NOT DESTRO Y
SEL F AN TI GEN S.

 HAVE BE EN
PROCES SED TO
REACT AGAI NST
SPEC IF IC
‘N ON SEL F’
AN TI GEN S.
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 16
APPLIED ASPECTS
 ATOPY
 Incr ease d Ig E
 Caus es A lle rgies

 AU TOIMMUN E
DI SOR DERS:
 Myes the nia g ravis
 Hashi moto ’s
Thy ro id iti s
 Syst emi c Lup us
Erythe mato sus
(SL E)
 HIV / AI DS NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 17
APPLIED ASPECTS

 IM MUNIZAT IO
N:
 PA SS IVE
 ATS
 AC TI VE :
 OPV .
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 18
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 19