THROMBOCYTES: PLATELETS

By Dr.M. Anthony David, MD.

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THROMBOCYTES: INTRO
Normally 1.5 - 4.0 Lakhs/Cu.mm in blood.  Are 2 – 4 µ in diameter; smallest blood cells.  Developed from giant cells called Megakaryocytes.

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THROMBOCYTES: STRUCTURE
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Spherical, oval, or rod-shaped colorless bodies. Diameter is between 2 to 4 μ. When unstimulated, under Electron Microscopy they appear as:
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Flattened discs Having a cell membrane And a Cytoplasmic matrix. Microtubules encircle the thrombocyte just below it’s surface membrane.
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Do not have nuclei. Cannot reproduce. But behave functionally as whole cells. Cytoplasm includes active proteins such as:
Actin. Myosin. Thrombesthenin.

THROMBOCYTES: STRUCTURE

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Cell Organelles in thrombocytes include:
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THROMBOCYTES: STRUCTURE

Lysosomal granules. Dense bodies: about 50 – 100 in number. Mitochondria & Enzyme systems which produce: Enzyme systems producing:

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ATP  ADP

Prostaglandins – Local hormones.
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THROMBOCYTES: Structures within
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Fine Glycogen granules. Microvesicles. Microtubules. Filaments. Granules:

Fibrin Stabilizing Factor (FSF) Factor XIII PDGF: Platelet Derived Growth Factor
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Dense: Serotonin, ADP etc.  ά-granules: Clotting factors such as:

THROMBOCYTES: STRUCTURE

Internal Membranous systems:

Open Canalicular System:

Spongelike invaginations  Provide multiple channels for:
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Taking up Calcium ions Secreting granule contents.

Dense Tubular System:

Channels of S.E.R.  Serves as an intracellular store for Calcium ions.
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IDENTIFY THROMBOCYTES!

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Platelet Physiology

Have a half life of 8 – 12 days. Eliminated from circulation by the Tissue Macrophage system. Thrombocytes are active structures.

About half of them are removed by the Macrophages in the Spleen. Platelet surface membrane has Phospho lipids, Cholesterol & glycolipids
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THROMBOCYTES: FUNCTIONS

Formation of Platelet plugs in Hemostasis.
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Supporting Coagulatory mechanisms. Phagocytosis. Storage & transport of substances.
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Activation. Adhesion. Aggregation/ Accumulation. Cohesion or Plug formation

PLATELET PLUG FORMATION

It can by itself stop blood loss, if the rent is small. Many such minute ruptures occur thousands of times every day in minute blood vessels. Platelets manage to plug these very well, all by themselves.
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APPLIED ASPECTS

Thrombocytopenia:

Decrease in Thrombocyte count.(Normal: 1.5 – 4 Lakhs/cu.mm of blood) Critical Thrombocyte Count is 40,000/cu.mm. Causes Purpura:

Multiple subcutaneous purplish blotches.

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IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA
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Usually cause not known. Called as Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. Diagnosis by:
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Easy bruisability & Purpura. Critical Platelet count. Prolonged Bleeding Time.

Can be treated by giving multiple transfusions of:
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Whole blood Platelet rich plasma: PRP

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APPLIED ASPECTS (Contd.)

With normal thrombocyte count, purpura may occur in Thrombesthenic Purpura, where the thrombesthenin is defective. Thrombocytosis can cause increased predisposition for Thrombotic events.

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PURPURA

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THROMBOCYTES: A REVIEW

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One of the three blood cells or formed element. 1.5 – 4.0 Lakhs/Cu.mm 2 – 4 Microns in diameter. No nuclei. Have proteins:
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Have granules secreting:
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Serotonin, ADP FSF & PDGF

Main function: Platelet Plug formation:
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Actin Myosin Thrombesthenin

Activation Adhesion Aggregation Cohesion.

Applied Aspects: ITP
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