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LEUCOCYTES: THE

WHITE BLOOD CELLS


By
Dr. M.Anthony David.MD
Professor of Physiology.

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INTRODUCTION
 Leucocytes: Mobile units of the
body’s defence mechanism
 Formed in the :
 Bone marrow
 Lymphoid tissue.
 Rapidly deployed through the
blood to areas where:
 Infection &
 Inflammation are seen.
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CLASSIFICATION OF LEUCOCYTES
LEUCOCYTES
100

GRANULOCYTES AGRANULOCYTES

EOSINOPHILS BASOPHILS MONOCYTES LYMPHOCYTES


1-8 0-1 3-8 30 - 50

NEUTROPHILS
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50 -70
NEUTROPHILS
 Most numerous Leucocytes ( 50 –
70%)
 Are 10 – 14 Microns in diameter.
 Have a constantly changing
shape due to amoeboid
movements.
 The Nucleus can have 1 – 7 lobes
connected by a fine strand.
 The Cytoplasm contains 50 – 200
fine granules.
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NEUTROPHILIA
 NEUTROPHILIA: Increased
neutrophil count, can be due to:
 Release of stored cells from the
bone marrow reserves.
 Bacterial Infections causing
increased Neutropoiesis.
 Exercise can cause release of
stored neutrophils.

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Cytoplasmic Granules
 Fine, azurophilic (Stain with both
Eosin & Methylene blue) in
nature.
 Contain enzymes such as:
 Cathepsins.

 Phosphatases.

 Nucleases.

 Granules serve as lysosomes.

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NEUTROPHILS & MONOCYTES:
Functions
 They seek, attack and destroy
invading bacteria, viruses and other
injurious agents
 Neutropils attack and destroy
bacteria and viruses, even in the
blood.
 Monocytes are immature until they
enter the tissues. There, they swell
up to 80 Microns, develop lysosomes,
and become Macrophages, capable of
defence. NOMAD:2006: BP: Leucocytes I 9
Neutrophils & Macrophages
 Diapedesis: They squeeze
through the pores of the
blood vessels.
 Amoeboid movement: They
move at rates several times
their own length!
 Chemotaxis: Directed
movement – cells move to
wards infected areas.
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EOSINOPHILS
 3 – 8% of the
Leucocytes.
 Have a typical
‘Spectacle
shaped’, bilobed
nucleus.
 Have coarse
bright pink
staining granules
in the cytoplasm.
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EOSINOPHILS

 They are parsiticidal in function.


 Eosinophilia or increased count
occurs in:
 Parasitic infestations.
 Allergic conditions.
 TPE: Tropical Pulmonary
Eosinophila.

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Basophils
 Are very few in number: <
1%.
 Have a large indented
nucleus which is obscured
by cytoplasmic granules.
 Granules are coarse and
basic staining: blue.
 They are abundant and
protrude through the cell
membrane.
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LYMPHOCYTES: IMMUNOCYTES
 Morphologically,
 LARGE

Lymphocytes:
 Sized about 12 –

15 µ
 Thin cytoplasmic

rim
 Large spherical

nucleus
 No cytoplasmic

granules. NOMAD:2006: BP: Leucocytes I 16


LYMPHOCYTES:
IMMUNOCYTES
Small
Lymphocytes:
 Sized about 8 µ.

 ( Smallest

Leucocytes)
 Thin cytoplasmic

rim & Large


spherical
nucleus.
 No granules

visible.
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LYMPHOCYTES:
IMMUNOCYTES
 Physiological Classification:T
and B
 ‘T’ LYMPHOCYTES :

 Thymus trained or schooled

cells
 Responsible for Cell

mediated immunity.
 Provide protection against

intracellular pathogens
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LYMPHOCYTES: IMMUNOCYTES:
‘B’ LYMPHOCYTES
 Trained in the Bone
marrow(Bursa Fabricius in
birds)
 Responsible for Humoral

Immunity.(Immunity through
Antibody production)
 Protect the body from

encapsulated pyogenic
bacteria like Pneumococcus &
streptococci.
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LEUCOCYTES: REVIEW
 Mobile units of Body
defence.
 Classified into:
 Granulocytes:

 Eosinophils.

 Basophils &

 Neutrophils

 Agranulocytes:

 Monocytes

 Lymphocytes:

Large & Small; T


and B types.
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LEUCOCYTES: REVIEW
 Transient life spans in
the blood.
 Neutrophils:
 Phagocytic cells

 Act as frontline cells

for defence along


with Macrophages.
 Show:

 Diapedesis

 Amoeboid

movement
 Chemotaxis

 Phagocytosis.
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LEUCOCYTES: REVIEW
 Chemotaxis: Directed movement
 Chemotaxins: Cytotaxins &
Cytotaxigens
 Eosinophils: Spectacle shaped
nucleus, Coarse pink granules.
 Basophils: Coarse blue granules,
obscuring nucleus. Custard apple
appearance.
 Lymphocytes: Physiologically T and B
types.Responsible for immunity:
Immunocytes.

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