LEUCOCYTES: THE WHITE BLOOD CELLS

By Dr. M.Anthony David.MD Professor of Physiology.
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INTRODUCTION

Leucocytes: Mobile units of the
body’s defence mechanism Formed in the :
 

Bone marrow Lymphoid tissue.

Rapidly deployed through the blood to areas where:
 

Infection & Inflammation are seen.
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CLASSIFICATION

OF

LEUCOCYTES

LEUCOCYTES 100

GRANULOCYTES

AGRANULOCYTES

EOSINOPHILS 1-8

BASOPHILS 0-1

MONOCYTES 3-8

LYMPHOCYTES 30 - 50

NEUTROPHILS 50 -70

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NEUTROPHILS
  

Most numerous Leucocytes ( 50 – 70%) Are 10 – 14 Microns in diameter. Have a constantly changing shape due to amoeboid movements. The Nucleus can have 1 – 7 lobes connected by a fine strand. The Cytoplasm contains 50 – 200 fine granules. BP: Leucocytes I NOMAD:2006: 5

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NEUTROPHILIA

NEUTROPHILIA: Increased neutrophil count, can be due to:

Release of stored cells from the bone marrow reserves. Bacterial Infections causing increased Neutropoiesis. Exercise can cause release of stored neutrophils.
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Cytoplasmic Granules

Fine, azurophilic (Stain with both Eosin & Methylene blue) in nature. Contain enzymes such as:  Cathepsins.  Phosphatases.  Nucleases. Granules serve as lysosomes.
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NEUTROPHILS & MONOCYTES:
Functions

They seek, attack and destroy invading bacteria, viruses and other injurious agents Neutropils attack and destroy bacteria and viruses, even in the blood. Monocytes are immature until they enter the tissues. There, they swell up to 80 Microns, develop lysosomes, and become Macrophages, capable of defence. NOMAD:2006: BP: Leucocytes I 9

Neutrophils & Macrophages

Diapedesis: They squeeze through the pores of the blood vessels. Amoeboid movement: They move at rates several times their own length! Chemotaxis: Directed movement – cells move to wards infected areas.
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EOSINOPHILS
 

3 – 8% of the Leucocytes. Have a typical ‘Spectacle shaped’, bilobed nucleus. Have coarse bright pink staining granules in the cytoplasm.
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EOSINOPHILS
 

They are parsiticidal in function. Eosinophilia or increased count occurs in:
  

Parasitic infestations. Allergic conditions. TPE: Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophila.
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Basophils
Are very few in number: < 1%.  Have a large indented nucleus which is obscured by cytoplasmic granules.  Granules are coarse and basic staining: blue.  They are abundant and protrude through the cell membrane.

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LYMPHOCYTES: IMMUNOCYTES

Morphologically,  LARGE Lymphocytes:  Sized about 12 – 15 µ  Thin cytoplasmic rim  Large spherical nucleus  No cytoplasmic granules. NOMAD:2006: BP: Leucocytes I

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LYMPHOCYTES: IMMUNOCYTES
Small Lymphocytes:  Sized about 8 µ.  ( Smallest Leucocytes)  Thin cytoplasmic rim & Large spherical nucleus.  No granules visible.
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Physiological Classification:T and B  ‘T’ LYMPHOCYTES :  Thymus trained or schooled cells  Responsible for Cell mediated immunity.  Provide protection against NOMAD:2006: pathogens 19 intracellularBP: Leucocytes I

LYMPHOCYTES: IMMUNOCYTES

LYMPHOCYTES: IMMUNOCYTES:

‘B’ LYMPHOCYTES
Trained in the Bone marrow(Bursa Fabricius in birds)  Responsible for Humoral Immunity.(Immunity through Antibody production)  Protect the body from encapsulated pyogenic bacteria like Pneumococcus & NOMAD:2006: streptococci. BP: Leucocytes I

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LEUCOCYTES: REVIEW
 

Mobile units of Body defence. Classified into:  Granulocytes:  Eosinophils.  Basophils &  Neutrophils  Agranulocytes:  Monocytes  Lymphocytes: Large & Small; T and B types.
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LEUCOCYTES: REVIEW
 

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Transient life spans in the blood. Neutrophils:  Phagocytic cells  Act as frontline cells for defence along with Macrophages.  Show:  Diapedesis  Amoeboid movement  Chemotaxis  Phagocytosis.

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LEUCOCYTES: REVIEW
 

Chemotaxis: Directed movement Chemotaxins: Cytotaxins & Cytotaxigens Eosinophils: Spectacle shaped nucleus, Coarse pink granules. Basophils: Coarse blue granules, obscuring nucleus. Custard apple appearance. Lymphocytes: Physiologically T and B types.Responsible for immunity: Immunocytes.
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