Introduction to the Global Positioning System

Mahatma Gandhi Mission College Of Engineering

What is the GPS?
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is GPS) a space-based global navigation satellite spacesystem (GNSS) that provides reliable location and time information  It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver. 

History of the GPS 1969² 1969²Defense Navigation Satellite System (DNSS) formed  1973²NAVSTAR Global Positioning 1973² System developed  1978²first 4 satellites 1978² launched  Delta rocket launch .

initial operational capability 1995² 1995²full operational capability May 2000²Military 2000² accuracy available to all users .History of the GPS    1993² 1993²24th satellite launched.

The GPS Constellation .

200 km elevation above Earth Orbital period of 11 hr 55 min Five to eight satellites visible from any point on Earth Block I Satellite Vehicle .Components of the System Space segment   24 satellite vehicles Six orbital planes   Inclined 55o with respect to equator Orbits separated by 60o    20.

Components of the System User segment      GPS antennas & receiver/processors Position Velocity Precise timing Used by     Aircraft Ground vehicles Ships Individuals .

Colorado Five monitor stations  Three ground antennas  Backup control system  .Components of the System Ground control segment  Master control station  Schreiver AFB.

GPS Communication and Control .

GPS Ground Control Stations .

How does GPS work?  Satellite ranging Satellite locations  Satellite to user distance  Need four satellites to determine position   Distance measurement Radio signal traveling at speed of light  Measure time from satellite to user   LowLow-tech simulation .

How does GPS work? PseudoPseudo-Random Code  Complex signal  Unique to each satellite  All satellites use same frequency  ³Amplified´ by information theory  Economical .

we determine how long it took to reach us. By comparing how late the satellite's pseudo-random pseudocode appears compared to our receiver's code. HighHigh-tech simulation .How does GPS work?      Distance to a satellite is determined by measuring how long a radio signal takes to reach us from that satellite. To make the measurement we assume that both the satellite and our receiver are generating the same pseudopseudo-random codes at exactly the same time. Multiply that travel time by the speed of light and you've got distance.

 .  Receiver clocks don't have to be too accurate because an extra satellite range measurement can remove errors.000 each) on board.  Satellites are accurate because they have four atomic clocks ($100.How does GPS work? Accurate timing is the key to measuring distance to satellites.

to be transmitted along with the timing signals. GPS satellites are so high up their orbits are very predictable. . The error information is sent to the satellites. moment by moment. Minor variations in their orbits are measured by the Department of Defense. All GPS receivers have an almanac programmed into their computers that tells them where in the sky each satellite is.How does GPS work?      To use the satellites as references for range measurements we need to know exactly where they are.

GPS Position Determination .

GPS Navigation .

7 meters vertical accuracy Designed for military use .System Performance  Standard Positioning System     100 meters horizontal accuracy 156 meters vertical accuracy Designed for civilian use No user fee or restrictions  Precise Positioning System    22 meters horizontal accuracy 27.

System Performance Selective availability     Intentional degradation of signal Controls availability of system¶s full capabilities Set to zero May 2000 Reasons     Enhanced 911 service Car navigation Adoption of GPS time standard Recreation .

 Differential GPS can reduce errors.  The configuration of the satellites in the sky can magnify other errors.System Performance The earth's ionosphere and atmosphere cause delays in the GPS signal that translate into position errors.  Some errors can be factored out using mathematics and modeling.  .

Message Format Each GPS satellite continuously broadcasts a navigation message at a rate of 50 bits per second  Each complete message is composed of 3030-second frames  All satellites broadcast at the same frequencies. Signals are encoded using code division multiple access (CDMA)  .

GPS time relationship Ephemeris (precise satellite orbit) Almanac component (satellite network synopsis.3 4.GPS Message Format Sub frames 1 2. error correction) .5 Description Satellite clock .

42 MHz L2 1227. P(Y) code.Satellite frequencies Band Frequency Description Course-acquisition (C/A) and encrypted precision P(Y) codes. Proposed for use as a civilian safety-of-life (SoL) signal. Being studied for additional ionospheric correction.913 MHz 1176.45 MHz .05 MHz 1379. plus the L1 civilian (L1C) and military (M) codes on future Block III satellites. L1 1575.60 MHz L3 L4 L5 1381. Used for nuclear detonation (NUDET) detection. plus the L2C and military codes on the Block IIRM and newer satellites.

Application of GPS Technology Location .monitoring the movement of people and things  Mapping .getting from one location to another  Tracking .bringing precise timing to the world  .determining a basic position  Navigation .creating maps of the world  Timing .

survey. geology Geotagging Agriculture GPS Aircraft Tracking   General and commercial Spacecraft  Maritime . climbing. biking Vehicle control     Mapping.Application of GPS Technology  Private and recreation    Traveling by car Hiking.

Military Uses for the GPS      Target tracking: Missile and projectile guidance Search and Rescue: Downed pilots can be located faster Reconnaissance: Patrol movement can be managed more closely GPS satellites carry set of nuclear detonation detectors Navigation: GPS allows soldiers find objectives .

Restrictions On Civilian Use  The U. State Department export licenses are required These limits attempt to prevent use of a receiver in a ballistic missile .S.001 kn)are classified as munitions kn)are (weapons) for which U.S. Government controls the export of   some civilian receivers All GPS receivers capable of functioning above 18 kilometers (11 mi) altitude and 515 metres per second (1.

Future Scope The future of global positioning system is bright as predictions range from its' increased usage to expansion into new areas of application  It is estimated that there will be 50 million users of the global positioning system by 2010  .

Conclusion .

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