A widely used framework for organizing and using data and information gained from situation analysis  Encompasses both internal and external environments  One of the most effective tools in the analysis of environmental data and information

programs. it is a participatory process . and capacities to the social environment in which they operate  It is an instrument within strategic planning  When combined with a dialogue.SWOT description  A SWOT analysis generates information that is helpful in matching an organization¶s or a group¶s goals.

SWOT  Factors affecting an organization can usually be classified as:  Internal factors  Strengths (S) (S  Weaknesses (W) (W Strengths Weaknesses  External factors Opportunities  Opportunities (O) (O  Threats (T) (T Threats .

In which areas might the organization improve? . internal to an organization. They are within the organization¶s control  Weaknesses  Factors that are within an organization¶s control that detract from its ability to attain the core goal.SWOT: internal factors  Strengths  Positive tangible and intangible attributes.

SWOT: external factors  Opportunities  External attractive factors that represent the reason for an organization to exist and develop. which could place the organization¶s mission or operation at risk. beyond an organization¶s control. The organization may benefit by having contingency plans to address them should they occur  Classify them by their ³seriousness´ and ³probability of occurrence´ . What opportunities exist in the environment which will propel the organization?  Identify them by their ³time frames´  Threats  External factors.

For the external factors Seriousness of Impact Low High High Minimum resources if any Must plan for Probability of occurrence Low Forget it Maintain flexibility in plan .

Create a plan of action  What steps can you take to:     Capitalize on your strengths Overcome or minimize your weaknesses Take advantage of some new opportunities Respond to the threats  Set goals and objectives. like with any other plan .

Major benefits of SWOT analyses      Simplicity Flexibility Integration and synthesis Collaboration Lower costs .

Keep your swot short and simple.For a productive SWOT analysis  Stay focused. Avoid complexity and over analysis  Collaborate with other functional areas  Examine issues from the customers¶/ stakeholders¶ perspective  Look for causes. not characteristics  Separate internal issues from external issues . Be specific and avoid grey areas.

we mean SWOT analyses .Stay focused  It can be a mistake to complete just one generic SWOT analysis for the entire organization  When we say SWOT analysis.

Collaborate with other functional areas  Information generated from the SWOT analysis can be shared across functional areas  SWOT analysis can generate communication between managers that ordinarily would not communicate  Creates and environment for creativity and innovation .

overall value. customer service. convenience. and promotional messages in comparison to our competitors?  What is the relative importance of these issues as stakeholders see them?  Taking the stakeholders¶ perspective is the cornerstone of a well done SWOT analysis .Examine issues from stakeholders· perspectives  To do this. the analyst should ask:  What do stakeholders (and non-stakeholders) believe nonabout us as an organization?  What do stakeholders (and non-stakeholders) think of nonour product quality. price. service quality.

Look for causes not characteristics  Causes for each issue in a SWOT analysis can often be found in the organization¶s and competitors¶ resources  Major types of resources:         Financial Organizational Intellectual Informational Legal Relational Human Reputation .

Separate internal and external issues  Failure to understand the difference between internal and external issues is one of the major reasons for a poorly conducted SWOT analysis  Know yourself  Know your customer/stakeholder  Know your competitors  Know your environment .

The elements of a SWOT analysis  Strengths and weaknesses  Scale and cost economies  Size and financial resources  Intellectual. legal. and value of reputation  Opportunities and threats  Trends in the competitive environment  Trends in the technological environment  Trends in the socio-cultural environment socio- .

Weaknesses can be converted into strengths with strategic investment. Weaknesses that cannot be converted become limitations which must be minimized if obvious or meaningful to customers or stakeholders . Achieving goals and objectives depends on transforming strengths into capabilities by matching them with opportunities 3. services and resources to examine processes that meet customers¶ or stakeholders¶ needs 2. Threats can be converted into opportunities with the right resources 4.SWOTSWOT-driven planning 1. The assessment of strengths and weaknesses should look beyond products.

The SWOT matrix .

Two people rarely come up with the same final version of a SWOT  Use it as a guide and not as a prescription .Caution  SWOT analysis can be very subjective. Do not rely too much on it.

post harvest losses ‡ Strengths .Sri Lanka possesses strong institutional capacity that can contribute to changes in the current situation .There is increasing governmental interest in the fisheries sector .Example .Many fishermen co-operatives are well coorganized and capable to support developments to reduce PHL .

Example .post harvest losses  Weaknesses  Little political pressure from fishermen and boat owners  Lack of infrastructure  Inferior design of multi-day boats and fishery multiharbours  Lack of awareness  Acceptance of low quality fish and low purchasing power of consumers in the domestic market .

Example .Post Harvest Losses  Weaknesses  Rapid policy changes due to frequent changes in politically elected authorities within the governmental sector  Limited knowledge of financial accounting among fishermen  Tropical weather conditions  High volume harvests of cultivated fish when seasonal tanks are being emptied  Excess governmental subsidies to increase fishermen recruitment without them having proper training or fishing equipment .

and vessel owners to fishermenincrease their revenue and income by reducing PHL Possibilities to increase export volume and value of fish products by reducing PHL Possibilities to strengthen financial resources of costal fisheries communities Vessel owners have recently formed an association at the national level that is likely to support developments to reduce PHL .Example .post harvest losses  Opportunities Possibilities to increase nutritional and economical value of fish products Possibilities for fishermen.

Example . improper sewage management. poor hygiene practices on boats and lack of facilities at landing sites and in harbours increases the likelihood of PHL .post harvest losses Threats  PHL reduce the chances of fishermen and vessel owners to maintain profitable and sustainable livelihood  PHL reduces the nutritional value of fish products  Insufficient availability of clean water.

http://www.eu/europeaid/qsm/documents/pcm_ma nual_2004_en.References  Department for international development (2002). Downloaded 1st March from: http://ec. Downloaded 1st March from: activity.pdf  European Commission (2004). Tools for development: A handbook for those engaged in development activity.europa.unssc.pdf .org/web1/ls/downloads/toolsfordevelo pment%20dfid. Project Cycle Management Guidelines.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful