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Chapter 10

The Marketing of Messages


The Marketing of Messages
Today we’ll cover… Media Speak
$Strengths & Weaknesses



Media Building Blocks

Building The Media Plan The Media Planning

Media Speak
$ Media = collective noun $ Medium = one type of media $ Vehicle = single carrier

Media Speak
Audience/Coverage/Compositi on
number or % exposed to a vehicle  number or % reached by a single insertion in a specified area

$Audience Coverage

$Audience Composition 

Media Speak
Reach & Ratings
$ Broadcast Media use Rating Points 
% of Target Audience reached by a media vehicle

$ Print Media use Circulation 
Number of copies sold or distributed

Media Speak
$ Above = paid advertising $ Below = sales promotion, PR, events

$ Traditional = major mass media $ Non-Traditional = unique media opportunities and new media forms

Media Speak
“Brand Contact Points” & More
$ Brand Contact Points $ Personal Media Network $ Aperture $Clutter - a result of

Clutter & Fragmentation 
More media channels  More messages in each channel  More media channels

$ Fragmentation - a result of

Media Building Blocks Strengths & Weaknesses:
First, we’ll examine the Strengths & Weaknesses of each Medium Then, we’ll take you through the steps of Building a Media Plan.

Strengths & Weaknesses:
Portable “Time independent” Not a fleeting medium - it lasts Accommodates complex copy Good picture quality Easier to feature more than one product Versatility Can be preserved and reread Journalistic content = credibility & prestige Can deliver coupons


Strengths & Weaknesses:
“Prestigious” Readers upscale Readers use ads Less lead time Strong local emphasis Sense of immediacy “Cataloging Value” Reproduction varies Not much passalong Can be expensive Cluttered Not read thoroughly Poor demographic selectivity May have adverse editorial


Strengths & Weaknesses:
Special audience opportunities Can be long-lasting Repeat exposure High “passalong” Creative flexibility Building audience takes time Can be cluttered Early closing dates


Strengths & Weaknesses:
Frequency and repetition Large audiences. Low cost. Visual impact Blanket coverage Versatility Poor demographic selectivity Limited time. Limited copy. Complicated logistics Can be expensive Restrictions


Strengths & Weaknesses:
Various formats. Radio is Special audiences. cluttered Radio spots $ Affordable frequency are fleeting
$ Affordable production



Reaches mobile market Scheduling & creative flexibility

Strengths & Weaknesses:
Impact Market coverage Intrusive Flexible Cost-efficient (CPM) Prestigious Fleeting Expensive
$ Big shows. Big Bucks. $ Production can be expensive


Best shows have limited availability

Strengths & Weaknesses:
Geographic flexibility Low ratings Inexpensive Reporting is Varied programming. inadequate Specialized audiences. Upscale audiences Wide variety of ad formats

Cable TV

Buildin gPlan: Media

Building The Media Plan:
Successful media planning is the task of selecting and scheduling media that will reach as many of the target audience as frequently as possible for the least amount of cost.

The Media Plan is…

Building The Media Plan:

$ a blueprint for future action… organizing a brand’s advertising into media objectives and strategies that are: 
Goal-Oriented - increase
sales/share  Make sense - effective/efficient  Manageable - can be executed,

Building The Media Plan:
Media Objectives
$ WHAT your Media Plan hopes to achieve

Media Strategies
$ HOW the Media Objective will be implemented

Evaluation & Analysis Planning Media Objectives Media Strategies The Media Buy Post-Buy Analysis

Building The Media Plan:

Evaluation & Analysis
$ Seasonality
$ $ $ $ $ $ $ Brand History Budget Purchase Cycle Prime Prospect Geography Competition Promotional Activity

Building The Media Plan:

Evaluation & Analysis + Problems & Opportunities

Building The Media Plan:

$ Similar to Situation Analysis SWOT Analysis

Becomes foundation for… The Media Plan

Planning Media Objectives $ Target Audience

Building The Media Plan:

$ Seasonality $ Geography $ Reach & Frequency

Planning Media Objectives $ Target Audience Profile 
Demographics  Product Usage

Building The Media Plan: 

Media Usage
! PMN - Personal Media Network
q Media Consumption q Core Audience q Aperture

Planning Media Objectives $ Seasonality 
Seasonal sales

Building The Media Plan: 

Media Efficiency  Competitive media presence  Promotions Scheduled

Planning Media Objectives $ Geographic
Distribution  Budget

Building The Media Plan:

! National/Regional/Local ! National/Regional/Local ! Offensive or Defensive Strategy? 


Sales by Market

Planning Media Objectives Frequency $ Reach and 

Building The Media Plan:
Consumer Motivation Purchase Cycle Purchase Decision Message Complexity Ad Effectiveness/Memorability Commercial Length Time of Day/Attention Competition

Planning Media $ Nature of Media/Message Strategies

Building The Media Plan:

$ Media Strength/Weakness $ Media Efficiencies - CPM $ Eliminate Media that don’t fit Brand $ Consider Selling Environments $ National vs. Local Spending $ Scheduling Strategies $ Synergy between Media/Ad

Planning Media Strategies $ Media Efficiencies - CPM 
CPM = Cost Per Thousand, the universal form of comparing the efficiency of different media. The following is a comparison of cost-efficiency for reaching Women 18-49

Building The Media Plan:

Network Radio :30 Day Network :30 Cable TV :30 Print 4-color page AM Network :30 Late Night :30 Syndication :30 Evening News :30 Prime Network :30

Building The Media Plan: 18-49 CPM - Women


5.35 6.05

7.67 11.1 12.22 13.29 17.80 18.31

Planning Media Strategies Strategies $ Scheduling

Building The Media Plan: 

Four Types of Ad Schedules:

The Media Buy

Building The Media Plan:

$ Buying - a separate function 
Involves tough-minded negotiating  Involves long-term relationships

$ Media Buying Services 
Growing field - specialists

Post-Buy Analysis

Building The Media Plan:

$ Measure actual performance 
Media makes “guarantees”  Involves large amount

$ If below guarantee, media must provide a “makegood.” $ And, if you do a good job…

You Get to Do It Again Next Year!

Building The Media Plan:

Media Planning:
A New Revolution
New importance of the media function
$ “Unbundling” = New Media Agencies $ New Global Relationships 

Mega-brands and mega-agencies

Growing # of media choices means growing need for media planning

Media Planning:
A New Revolution
“It will be more challenging to work in advertising in new media… it’s a ‘sky’s the limit’ type of thing. And advertisers have to know all the possibilities.” Jayne Spitler, Leo Burnett/StarCom

Media Planning:
A New Revolution
“The creative people and the media people must intertwine their work as much as possible. They have to understand the overall project is part of a targeting process.” David Martin, CEO/PentaCom

Media Planning:
A New Revolution
“In a rapidly changing media world, an understanding of the consumer/ media relationship is of fundamental importance to the process.” Andy Tilley. Zenith Media

Media Planning:
A New Revolution
“Today’s toughest question is how to find your customers at the most strategic time – that’s why media is the new creative frontier.” Keith Reinhard, Chmn DDB

Questions Discussion: