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BHAWNA 0081184408 MCA 4TH SEM

TERMS

Data rate Defines the number of data elements(bits) sent in 1s. Unit is bps Signal rate number of signal elements sent in 1s. Unit is baud Bandwidth in bits per sec speed of bit transmission in channel or link Baseline wandering The incoming signal power is evaluated against the baseline to determine the value of the data element. A long string of 0 s and 1 s can cause a drift in the baseline, and make it difficult for the receiver to decode correctly.

zero ± AMI and pseudoternary . RZ and biphase Bipolar encoding uses three voltage levels: positive. one negative) ± NRZ. ± NRZ Polar encoding uses two voltage levels (one positive.LINE CODING Unipolar encoding uses only one voltage level (either 0 or 1) 1 encoded as a positive value and the 0 encoded as zero value. negative.

Continued There are numerous techniques available to convert digital data into digital signals. Manchester 5. Nonreturn to Zero Inverted (NRZI) 3. HDB3 . Differential Manchester 6. Multilevel (Bipolar AMI) 4. Nonreturn to Zero-Level (NRZ-L) 2. Let s examine few: 1. B8ZS 7.

Unipolar encoding .

Nonreturn to Zero-Level (NRZ-L) Two different voltages for 0 and 1 bits Negative voltage for one value and positive for the other Voltage constant during bit interval No transition to 0V For Example: Negative Voltage (-5V) use to represent binary 1 and Positive Voltage (+5v) use to represent binary 0 .

Nonreturn to Zero Inverted (NRZ-I) Nonreturn to zero and inverted on 1 Constant voltage pulse for duration of bit Data encoded as presence or absence of signal transition at beginning of bit time Transition denotes a binary 1 No transition denotes binary 0 .

Fundamental difference exists between NRZ-L and NRZI With NRZ-L. the receiver has to check the voltage level for each bit to determine whether the bit is a 0 or a 1. With NRZI.NRZ NRZ-L and NRZ-I both have an average signal rate of N/2 Bd. the receiver has to check whether there is a change at the beginning of the bit to determine if it is a 0 or a 1 .

this problem is more serious in NRZ-L ± Baseline wandering is a problem for both schemes.NRZ pros and cons Pros ± Easy to engineer ± Make good use of bandwidth Cons ± String of 0 s or 1 s leads a constant voltage over a period of time ± Loss of synchronization between transmitter & receiver. but twice as severe in NRZ-L Used for magnetic recording Not often used for signal transmission .

Return to Zero (RZ) The main problem with NRZ encoding occurs when the sender and reciever clocks are not synchronized. which is more complex to create. Signals changes during the bit Disadvantages Requires two signal changes to encode a bit. the solution is RZ scheme. Scheme is not used today . therefore occupies greater bandwidth Complexity: RZ uses three levels of voltage.

Biphase Schemes Overcomes the limitations on NRZ codes Two biphase techniques are commonly used: ± Manchester ± Differential Manchester Heavily used in LAN applications .

BIPHASE continued 1.3 (ethernet) standard for baseband coaxial cable and twisted-pair CSMA/CD bus LANs . Manchester ± ± ± ± Transition in middle of each bit period Idea of RZ and NRZ-L are combined Mid-Bit transition serves for clocking and data Rule Low to high represents binary 1 High to low represents binary 0 ± Enables effective clock signal recovery at receiver Poor bandwidth utilization ± Effective sending rate is cut in half Used by IEEE 802.

the transition at the middle of the bit is used for both synchronization and bit representation. .BIPHASE continued In Manchester encoding.

there will be a transition (start of a bit period) If there is a 1 . Differential Manchester ± Combines the ideas of RZ and NRZ-I ± Mid-Bit transition serves only for clocking ± Rule If there is a 0 .BIPHASE continued 1. using shielded twisted pair .5 token ring LAN. there will be no transition (start of a bit period) ± Used by IEEE 802.

.

Modulation Rate Modulation rate for Manchester and Differential Manchester is twice the data rate inefficient encoding for long-distance applications .

Biphase Pros and Cons Cons ± At least one transition per bit time and possibly two ± Maximum baud rate is twice NRZ ± Requires more bandwidth ± Signal rate is double that for NRZ Pros ± Synchronization on mid bit transition (self clocking) ± No baseline wandering ± Error detection .

NRZ codes generate signal that does not change over long time period ± Manchester codes always produce signal change during every bit transmission. ± Manchester codes are called self-clocking codes. Big difference between NRZ and Manchester codes: ± For long strings of 0-bits. because they provide a guaranteed voltage change (a clock signal ) in the middle of every bit received .

. because receiver continuously gets feedback on sender clock rate. ± NRZ-L or NRZ-I cannot be used at high data rates or long distances unless a separate clock signal is sent on another wire. Why do we care about self-clocking codes? ± Transmitter / receiver clocks are not perfectly synchronized to tick at same rate (too expensive). ± Manchester codes can be used at high data rates or long distances.

BIPOLAR ENCODING It uses three voltage levels: positive. The zero level is used to represent binary 0. negative and zero. while the 1s are represented by alternating positive and negative voltages Same signal rate as NRZ .

No loss of sync if a long string of ones (zeros still a problem) Lower bandwidth Easy error detection . a zero voltage is transmitted ± When the device transmits a binary 1.Bipolar-AMI Encoding Scheme The bipolar-AMI (Alternate Mark Inversion) encoding scheme is unique among all the encoding schemes because it uses three voltage levels ± When a device transmits a binary 0. either a positive voltage or a negative voltage is transmitted ± Which of these is transmitted depends on the binary 1 value that was last transmitted Used for long distance communication.

Pseudoternary Variation of AMI encoding I bit is encoded as zero voltage 0 bit is encoded as alternating positive and negative voltages. .

BIPOLAR ENCODING .

Scrambling Technique Used for long distance transmission (WAN) ± Solve the problem of bipolar AMI code where sequence of zero was problem. and HDB3 24 . ± Provide synchronization Used to replace sequences that would produce constant voltage Avoid long sequences of zero level line signal No reduction in data rate Error detection capability Two commonly used techniques are: B8ZS.

Bipolar With 8 Zeros Substitution (B8ZS) Based on bipolar-AMI ± Used in North America Eight consecutive zeros level voltages are replaced by the sequence of 000VB0VB V denotes violation. this is a non zero voltage that breaks an AMI rule of encoding B denotes bipolar. which means a non zero level voltage in accordance with the AMI rule Scrambling in this case does not change bit rate 25 .

is odd.substitution pattern-B00V 26 . is even.High Density Bipolar 3 Zeros (HDB3) HDB3 ± similar but based on 4 zeros Based on bipolar-AMI String of four consecutive zero level voltages are replaced with a sequence of 000V or B00V The reason for two different substitutions is to maintain the even number of non zero pulses after each substitution if no.substitution pattern-000V if no.

B8ZS and HDB3 B8ZS HDB3 .

except that any string of four zeros is replaced by a string with one code violation Same as bipolar-AMI.Recap of Digital Signal Encoding Formats 0 NRZL NRZI Bipolar-AMI Manchester Diff Manchester (always a Transition in the middle of interval) 1 Low level transition +ve line signal Transition from low to high in the middle of interval No transition at start of interval High level No transition at start of interval No line signal Transition from high to low in the middle of interval Tran at start of interval HDB3 B8ZS Same as bipolar-AMI. except that any string of eight zeros are replaced by a string of two code violations 28 .

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