Important of a balanced diet
A balanced diet is one which contains all the classes of food in the correct proportions.
Carbohydrates Protein Fats Water Minerals Vitamins Fibre } } }
Composition of a balanced diet

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80% 10% 10% 8 glasses

sufficient amounts

It supplies the nutrients required to keep away sickness. . It supplies the amino acids required by a person for growth and for repairing damaged tissues.A balanced diet should serve the following purposes:    It supplies the daily energy required by a person.

Severe lack of protein in the diet causes kwashiorkor (weak muscles and swollen abdomen) .  The lack of a class of food or nutrient in a diet for a long time will cause malnutrition and dificiency diseases.

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Eating excess of a class food or nutrient will give rise to health problems. Excess nutrient Carbohydrates Fats Sugar Common salt Health problems Obesity Heart attack Stroke Diabetes Tooth decay High blood presure .

Factors that determine a balanced diet .

Body size A big person uses up more energy than a small person. Age A young person uses up more energy than an old person.A person¶s balanced diet depends on the following factors. Gender Job Health Climate Men usually use up more energy than women A labourer uses up more energy than an office clerk A person recovering from an illness requires more nutrient People living in cold countries requires more energy to keep themselves warm. .

The process of digestion of food .

Aim of digestion  The aim of digestion is to break down large insoluble food molecules into small soluble molecules which can pass through the cell membranes into the cells of the body. .

 Enzymes released by the digestive organs break down the larger insoluble food molecules into small soluble molecules for absorption into the cells of the body. Chemical process. Food in the mouth is cut into small pieces by the teeth.Process of digestion 1.  Physical process. . 2.

Part of a very long starch molecules Wire netting represents semipermeable cell membrane Single glucose molecules Model to show that only small molecules of food can diffuse through the cell membrane. .

Absorption of digested food .

These products can now be absorbed directly into the bloodstream.  Amino acids from the digestion of proteins  Fatty acids and glycerol from the digestion of fats. The final products of digestion are:  Simple sugars such as glucose and fructose from the digestion of carbohydrates.Absorption in the small intestine. .

The villi on the inner walls of the small intestine increase the surface area for absorption of the digested food. . Absorption of the digested food.Vitamins and minerals can be absorbed directly into the blood stream without the need for digestion. The absorbed substances finally enter the bloodstream and are carried to the cells of the body. vitamins and minerals takes places in the small intestine by tiny finger-like structures called villi (singular: vilus).

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Extra glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen. Digested food. is carried by the blood to the cells of the body. mainly glucose. 3. energy + water + carbon dioxide Glucose + oxygen 4. water and carbon dioxide. 2. The glucose is oxidized in the cells to release energy. . This process is called cell respiration.Cell respiration 1.

.   2.Assimilation 1. Amino acids from the digestion of proteins are used for: building new cell. Repairing damaged tissues. Extra amino acids are broken down by the liver into urea and excreted in the urine. This process is called assimilation. 3.

.Reabsorption of water and defecation.

defecation. Fibre helps peristalsis which moves the undigested material forward in the intestine. faeces.defecation       Undigested material from food is stored in the rectum as faeces. Fibre helps to prevent constipation. a condition in which the person has difficulty defecating. the diet must contain enough fibre. This process of getting rid of faeces called defecation. . Faeces is removed from the rectum periodically through the anus. For regular defecation.

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Reabsorption of water     The larger intestine consists of two portions. namely: the colon and the rectum. Food that reaches the larger intestine is mainly water and undigested material such as dietary fibre. . The colon reabsorbs the water for the body. rectum. The solid material passes into the rectum and is stored as faeces.

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