MySQL Data Warehousing Survival Guide

Marius Moscovici ( Steffan Mejia (

‡ The size of the beast ‡ Evolution of a Warehouse ‡ Lessons Learned ‡ Survival Tips ‡ Q&A

Size of the beast
‡ 43 Servers o 36 active o 7 standby spares ‡ 16 TB of data in MySQL ‡ 12 TB archived (pre S3 staging) ‡ 4 TB archived (S3) ‡ 3.5B rows in main warehouse ‡ Largest table ~ 500M rows (MySQL)

Warehouse Evolution - First came slaving
Problems: ‡ Reporting slaves easily fall behind ‡ Reporting limited to one-pass SQL

Warehouse Evolution - Then came temp tables
Problems: ‡ Easy to lock replication with temp table creation ‡ Slaving becomes fragile

Warehouse Evolution - A Warehouse is Born
Problems: ‡ Warehouse workload limited by what can be performed by a single server

Warehouse Evolution - Workload Distributed
Problems: ‡ No Real-Time Application integration support

Warehouse Evolution - Integrate Real Time Data

Lessons Learned - Warehouse Design

Workload exceeds available memory

Lessons Learned - Warehouse Design
‡ Keep joins < available memory ‡ Heavily Denormalize data for effective reporting ‡ Minimize joins between large tables ‡ Aggressively archive historical data

Lessons Learned - Data Movement
‡ Mysqldump is your friend ‡ Sequence parent/child data loads based on ETL assumptions o Orders without order lines o Order lines without orders ‡ Data Movement Use Cases o Full o Incremental o Upsert (Insert on duplicate key update)

Full Table Loads
‡ Good for small tables ‡ Works for tables with no primary key ‡ Data is fully replaced on each load

Incremental Loads
‡ Table contains new rows but no updates ‡ Good for insert-only tables ‡ High-water mark level included in Mysqldump where clause

Upsert Loads
‡ Table contains new and updated rows ‡ Table must have primary key ‡ Can be used to update only subset of columns

Lessons Learned - ETL Design
‡ Avoid large joins like the plague ‡ Break out ETL jobs into bite-size-bites ‡ Ensure target data integrity on ETL failure ‡ Use memory staging tables to boost performance

ETL Design - Sample Problem
Build a daily summary of customer event log activity

ETL Design - Sample Solution

ETL Pseudo code - Step 1
1) Create staging table & Find High Water Mark:
SELECT IFNULL(MAX(calendar_date),'2000-01-01') INTO @last_loaded_date FROM user_event_log_summary; set max_heap_table_size = <big enough number to hold several days data> CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE user_event_log_summary_staging (.....) ENGINE = MEMORY; CREATE INDEX user_idx USING HASH on user_event_log_summary_staging(user_id);

ETL Pseudo code - Step 2
2) Summarize events:
INSERT INTO user_event_log_summary_staging ( calendar_date, user_id, event_type, event_count) SELECT DATE(event_time), user_id, event_type, COUNT(*) FROM event_log WHERE event_time > CONCAT(@last_loaded_date, '23:59:59') GROUP BY 1,2,3;

ETL Pseudo code - Step 3
3) Set denormalized user columns:
UPDATE user_event_log_summary_staging log_summary, user SET log_summary.type = user.type, log_summary.status = user.status WHERE user.user_id = log_summary.user_id;

ETL Pseudo code - Step 4
3) Insert into Target Table:
INSERT INTO user_event_log_summary (...) SELECT ... FROM user_event_log_summary_staging;

Functional Partitioning
‡ Benefits depend on
o o o

Partition Execution Times Data Move Times Dependencies between functional partitions

Functional Partitioning

Job Management
‡ Run everything single-threaded on a server ‡ Handle dependencies between jobs across servers ‡ Smart re-start key to survival ‡ Implemented 3-level hierarchy of processing o Process (collection of build steps and data moves) o Build Steps (ETL 'units of work') o Data Moves

DW Replication
‡ Similar to other MySQL environments o Commodity hardware o Master-slave pairs for all databases ‡ Mixed environments can be difficult o Use rsync to create slaves o But not with ssh (on private network) ‡ Monitoring o Reporting queries need to be monitored  Beware of blocking queries  Only run reporting queries on slave (temp table issues) o Nagios o Ganglia o Custom scripts

Infrastructure Planning
‡ Replication latency o Warehouse slave unable to keep up o Disk utilization > 95% o Required frequent re-sync ‡ Options evaluated o Higher speed conventional disks o RAM increase o Solid-state-disks

‡ Check / reset HW RAID settings ‡ Use general query log to track ETL / Queries ‡ Application timing o isolate poor-performing parts of the build ‡ Optimize data storage - automatic roll-off of older data

Infrastructure Changes
‡ Increased memory 32GB -> 64GB ‡ New servers have 96GB RAM ‡ SSD Solution o 12 & 16 disk configurations o RAID6 vs. RAID10 o 2.0T or 1.6TB formatted capacity o SATA2 HW BBU RAID6 o ~ 8 TB data on SSD

‡ Sometimes it pays to throw hardware at a problem o 15-hour warehouse builds on old system o 6 hours on optimized system o No application changes

Two-tiered solution ‡ Move data into archive tables in separate DB ‡ Use select to dump data - efficient and fast ‡ Archive server handles migration o Dump data o GPG o Push to S3

Survival Tips
‡ Efforts to scale are non-linear o As you scale, it becomes increasingly difficult to manage o Be prepared to supplement your warehouse strategy  Dedicated appliance  Distributed processing (Hadoop, etc) ‡ You can gain a great deal of headroom by optimizing I/O o Optimize current disk I/O path o Examine SSD / Flash solutions o Be pragmatic about table designs ‡ It's important to stay ahead of the performance curve o Be proactive - monitor growth, scale early ‡ Monitor everything, including your users o Bad queries can bring replication down

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