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PowerPoint Presentation by CharIie Cook
The University of West AIabama
t e n t h e d i t i o n
Cary Dessler Cary Dessler
Part Part 2 2 Recruitment and PIacement Recruitment and PIacement Chapter Chapter 4 4
Job Analysis Job Analysis
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The Nature of ]ob Analysis
Job analysis
- The procedure for determining the duties and skill
requirements of a job and the kind of person who
should be hired for it.
Job description
- A list of a job's duties, responsibilities, reporting
relationships, working conditions, and supervisory
responsibilities-one product of a job analysis.
Job specifications
- A list of a job's ¨human requirements," that is, the
requisite education, skills, personality, and so on-
another product of a job analysis.
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Types of !nformation Collected
ork activities
Human behaviors
Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
Performance standards
Job context
Human requirements
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Uses of ]ob Analysis !nformation
#ecruitment and Selection
Compensation
Performance Appraisal
Training
Discovering Unassigned Duties
EEO Compliance
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Uses of ]ob Analysis !nformation
Figure 4-1
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Steps in ]ob Analysis
$tep 1: 0.id0 how you'll us0 th0
information.
$tep 2: R0;i0w r0l0;ant ba.round
information.
$tep 3: S0l0.t r05r0s0ntati;0 5ositions.
$tep 4: A.tually analyz0 th0 job.
$tep 5: V0rify th0 job analysis information.
$tep 6: 0;0lo5 a job d0s.ri5tion and job
s50.ifi.ation.
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Charting the Organization
Organization chart
- A chart that shows the organizationwide
distribution of work, with titles of each position
and interconnecting lines that show who reports
to and communicates to whom.
Process chart
- A work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to
and outputs from a particular job.
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Process Chart for Analyzing a ]ob's Workflow
Figure 4-2
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Nethods of Collecting ]ob Analysis
!nformation: The !nterview
nformation sources
- !ndividual employees
- Croups of employees
- Supervisors with
knowledge of the job
Advantages
- Ouick, direct way to
find overlooked
information.
Disadvantages
- Distorted information
nterview formats
- Structured (Checklist)
- Unstructured
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!nterview Cuidelines
The job analyst and supervisor should work together
to identify the workers who know the job best.
Quickly establish rapport with the interviewee.
Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists
open-ended questions and provides space for
answers.
Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of
importance and frequency of occurrence.
After completing the interview, review and verify the
data.
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Nethods of Collecting ]ob Analysis
!nformation: Ouestionnaires
nformation source
- Have employees fill out
questionnaires to
describe their job·
related duties and
responsibilities.
Questionnaire formats
- Structured checklists
- Opened·ended
questions
Advantages
- Ouick and efficient way
to gather information
from large numbers of
employees
Disadvantages
- Expense and time
consumed in preparing
and testing the
questionnaire
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Nethods of Collecting ]ob Analysis
!nformation: Observation
nformation source
- Observing and noting
the physical activities
of employees as they
go about their jobs.
Advantages
- Provides first·hand
information
- Reduces distortion of
information
Disadvantages
- Time consuming
- Difficulty in capturing
entire job cycle
- Of little use if job
involves a high level of
mental activity.
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Nethods of Collecting ]ob Analysis
!nformation: Participant Diary/Logs
nformation source
- Workers keep a
chronological diary/ log
of what they do and
the time spent in each
activity.
Advantages
- Produces a more
complete picture of the
job
- Employee participation
Disadvantages
- Distortion of
information
- Depends upon
employees to
accurately recall their
activities
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Ouantitative ]ob Analysis Techniques
The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)
- A questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data
concerning the duties and responsibilities of
various jobs.
The Department of Labor (DOL) procedure
- A standardized method by which different jobs can
be quantitatively rated, classified, and compared.
Functional job analysis
- Takes into account the extent to which
instructions, reasoning, judgment, and
mathematical and verbal ability are necessary for
performing job tasks.
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Sample Report
Based on
Department of
Labor ]ob
Analysis
Technique
Figure 4-6
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Writing ]ob Descriptions
A job description
- A written statement of what the worker actually
does, how he or she does it, and what the job's
working conditions are.
Sections of a typical job description
- ]ob identification
- ]ob summary
- Responsibilities and duties
- Authority of incumbent
- Standards of performance
- Working conditions
- ]ob specifications
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Sample ]ob
Description,
Pearson
Education
Figure 4-7a
Source: Court0sy of HR 05artm0nt,
P0arson Edu.ation.
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Sample ]ob
Description,
Pearson
Education
Figure 4-7b
Source: Court0sy of HR
05artm0nt, P0arson
Edu.ation.
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¨Narketing Nanager" Description
from
Standard Occupational Classification
Figure 4-8
20. 11-2021 Marketing Managers
Abstract: 11-2021 Mar0tin Mana0rs. 0t0rmin0 th0 d0mand
for 5rodu.ts and s0r;i.0s off0r0d by a firm and Ìts .om50titors and
id0ntify 5ot0ntial .ustom0rs. 0;0lo5 5ri.in strat0i0s with th0
oal of maximizin th0 firm's 5rofits or shar0 of th0 mar0t whil0
0nsurin th0 firm's .ustom0rs ar0 satisfi0d.
Source: www.bis.o;, a..0ss0d No;0mb0r 13, 2003.
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The ]ob Description
Job identification
- ]ob title: name of job
- FLSA status section: Exempt or nonexempt
- Preparation date: when the description was
written
- Prepared by: who wrote the description
Job summary
- Describes the general nature of the job
- Lists the major functions or activities
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The ]ob Description (cont'd)
#elationships (chain of command)
- Reports to: employee's immediate supervisor
- Supervises: employees that the job incumbent
directly supervises
- Works with: others with whom the job holder will
be expected to work and come into contact with
internally.
- Outside the company: others with whom the job
holder is expected to work and come into contact
with externally.
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The ]ob Description (cont'd)
#esponsibilities and duties
- A listing of the job's major responsibilities and
duties (essential functions)
- Defines limits of jobholder's decision·making
authority, direct supervision, and budgetary
limitations.
Standard Occupational Classification
- Classifies all workers into one of 23 major groups
of jobs which are subdivided into 36 minor groups
of jobs and detailed occupations.
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SOC's
Najor
Croups of
]obs
TabIe 4-2
ote: ithin th0s0 major rou5s
ar0 96 minor rou5s, 449 broad
o..u5ations, and 821 d0tail0d
o..u5ations.
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!s the ]ob Function Essential?
hat three or four main activities actually constitute the job? s
each really necessary?
hat is the relationship between each task? s there a special
sequence which the tasks must follow?
Do the tasks necessitate sitting, standing, crawling, walking,
climbing, running, stooping, kneeling, lifting, carrying, digging,
writing, operating, pushing, pulling, fingering, talking, listening,
interpreting, analyzing, seeing, coordinating, etc.?
How many employees are available to perform the job function?
Can the job function be distributed among other employees?
How much time is spent on the job performing each particular
function? Are infrequent tasks less important to success?
ould removing a function fundamentally alter the job?
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!s the ]ob Function Essential? (cont'd)
hat happens if a task is not completed on time?
Does the position exist to perform that function?
Are employees in the position actually required to perform the
function?
s there a limited number of other employees available to
perform the function?
hat is the degree of expertise or skill required to perform the
function?
hat is the actual work experience of present or past
employees in the job?
hat is the amount of time an individual actually spends
performing the function?
hat are the consequences of not requiring the performance of
the function?
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The ]ob Description (cont'd)
Standards of performance and
working conditions
- Lists the standards the employee
is expected to achieve under each
of the job description's main
duties and responsibilities.
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Writing ]ob Specifications
Specifications for trained personnel
- Focus on traits like length of previous service,
quality of relevant training, and previous job
performance.
Specifications for untrained personnel
- Focus on physical traits, personality, interests, or
sensory skills that imply some potential for
performing or for being trained to do the job.
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Writing ]ob Specifications (cont'd)
Specifications Based on Judgment
- Self·created judgments (common sense)
- List of competencies in Web·based job
descriptions (e.g., www.jobdescription.com)
- O*NET online
- Standard Occupational Classification
Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis
- Attempts to determine statistically the relationship
between a predictor or human trait and an
indicator or criterion of job effectiveness.
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Writing ]ob Specifications (cont'd)
Steps in the Statistical Approach
- Analyze the job and decide how to measure job
performance.
- Select personal traits that you believe should
predict successful performance.
- Test candidates for these traits.
- Neasure the candidates' subsequent job
performance.
- Statistically analyze the relationship between the
human trait and job performance.
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Writing ]ob Descriptions
St05 1. 0.id0 on a Plan
St05 2. 0;0lo5 an Oranization Chart
St05 3. Us0 a Job Analysis/0s.ri5tion
Qu0stionnair0
St05 4. Obtain Lists of Job uti0s from O*NET
St05 5. Com5il0 th0 Job's Human R06uir0m0nts
from O*NET
St05 6. Com5l0t0 Your Job 0s.ri5tion
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]ob Analysis in a ¨]obless" World
Job
- Cenerally defined as ¨a set of closely related
activities carried out for pay."
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From Specialized to Enlarged ]obs
Job enlargement
- Assigning workers additional same level activities,
thus increasing the number of activities they
perform.
Job enrichment
- Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the
opportunities for the worker to experience feelings
of responsibility, achievement, growth, and
recognition.
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From Specialized to Enlarged ]obs
(cont'd)
Job rotation
- Noving a trainee from department to department
to broaden his or her experience and identify
strong and weak points to prepare the person for
an enhanced role with the company
- Systematically moving workers from one job to
another to enhance work team performance.
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Why Nanagers Are Dejobbing Their
Companies
Dejobbing
- Broadening the
responsibilities of the
company's jobs
- Encouraging employee
initiative.
nternal factors leading
to dejobbing
- Flatter organizations
- Work teams
External factors leading
to dejobbing.
- Rapid product and
technological change
- Clobal competition
- Deregulation,
- Political instability,
- Demographic changes
- Rise of a service
economy.
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Competency·Based ]ob Analysis
Competencies
- Demonstrable characteristics of a person that
enable performance of a job.
Competency-based job analysis
- Describing a job in terms of the measurable,
observable, behavioral competencies (knowledge,
skills, and/or behaviors) an employee must exhibit
to do a job well.
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Why Use Competency Analysis?
To support HPS
- Traditional job descriptions (with their lists of
specific duties) may actually backfire if a high·
performance work system is the goal.
Maintain a strategic focus
- Describing the job in terms of the skills,
knowledge, and competencies the worker needs is
more strategic.
Measuring performance
- Neasurable skills, knowledge, and competencies
are the heart of any company's performance
management process.
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Performance Nanagement
Performance management
- Nanaging all elements of the organizational
process that affect how well employees perform.
Types of competencies
- Ceneral competencies
W r0adin, writin, and math0mati.al r0asonin.
- Leadership competencies
W l0ad0rshi5, strat0i. thinin, and t0a.hin oth0rs.
- Technical competencies
W s50.ifi. t0.hni.al .om50t0n.i0s r06uir0d for s50.ifi.
ty50s of jobs and/or o..u5ations.
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Background Data for Examples
Figure 4-10
ExampIe of Job TitIe: Custom0r S0r;i.0 Cl0r
ExampIe of Job $ummary:
Answ0rs in6uiri0s and i;0s dir0.tions to .ustom0rs, authoriz0s
.ashin of .ustom0rs' .h0.s, r0.ords and r0turns lost .har0 .ards,
sorts and r0;i0ws n0w .r0dit a55li.ations, wors at .ustom0r s0r;i.0
d0s in d05artm0nt stor0.
ExampIe of One Job Duty:
Authoriz0s .ashin of .h0.s: authoriz0s .ashin of 50rsonal or
5ayroll .h0.s (u5 to a s50.ifi0d amount) by .ustom0rs d0sirin to
ma0 5aym0nt by .h0.. R06u0sts id0ntifi.ation÷su.h as dri;0r's
li.0ns0÷from .ustom0rs and 0xamin0s .h0. to ;0rify dat0, amount,
sinatur0, and 0ndors0m0nt. Ìnitials .h0. and s0nds .ustom0r to
.ashi0r.
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HR Scorecard
for Hotel Paris
!nternational
Corporation*
Figure 4-11
ote: *(An abbreviated example showing selected H#
practices and outcomes aimed at implementing the
competitive strategy," To use superior guest services to
differentiate the Hotel Paris properties and thus increase
the length of stays and the return rate of guests and thus
boost revenues and profitability")
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The Skills Natrix for One ]ob at BP
Figure 4-12
Note: The light blue boxes indicate the minimum level of skill required for the job.
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ey Terms
job anaIysis
job description
job specifications
organization chart
process chart
diary/Iog
position anaIysis
questionnaire (PAQ)
U.$. Department of Labor
(DOL)
job anaIysis procedure
functionaI job anaIysis
$tandard OccupationaI
CIassification ($OC)
job enIargement
job rotation
job enrichment
dejobbing
boundaryIess organization
reengineering
competencies
competency-based job
anaIysis
performance management

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