Background

‡ Born November 23, 1980 in Sierra Leone ‡ Forced into Sierra Leonean conflict at the age of 12 ‡ After three bloody years, he was rescued by UNICEF ‡ In 1997 he fled Sierra Leone and went to New York City

Life in the Jungle
‡ Brutal three years ‡ Terrible acts ‡ Drug addictions

What is a Child Soldier?
‡ A child soldier is any person under 18 years of age who is part of any kind of regular or irregular armed force or armed group in any capacity.

‡ The definition includes girls recruited for sexual purposes and for forced marriage. It does not, therefore, only refer to a child who is carrying or has carried arms.

Drugs used by Child Soldiers
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Brown-Brown Marijuana Speed Tranquilizers Heroin

Which Countries Use Child Soldiers?

Some of countries that use child soldiers are Burma, Columbia, Sri Lanka, Rwanda, Liberia, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, and Cote d'Ivoire.

Psychological Effects During War
‡ Nightmares ‡ Aggression ‡ Anti-social behavior ‡ Substance abuse

Long-term Psychological Effects
‡ Anti-social behavior ‡ Substance abuse ‡ Disabilities from injuries sustained in war ‡ Girls dealing with unwanted pregnancies ‡ UNICEF wants to raise minimum enlistment age to 18; US is main obstacle to this goal

Rehabilitation Process
‡ Hard to adjust back to normal life
± Trust ± Withdrawal from drugs ± Family

‡ It s not your fault

Life in America
‡ In the U.S. he lived with his foster mother Laura Sims ‡ Attended United Nations International School ‡ Graduated from Oberlin college in 2004 ‡ Has spoken at the UN ‡ Met with such leaders as Nelson Mandela and Bill Clinton

Narrative Style
‡ Detached ‡ Dreams/reality ‡ Concise

First Liberian Civil War
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 1989-1996 Samuel Doe Charles Taylor- NPFL Prince Johnson- INPFL Coalition government in 1993 Charles Taylor elected President Killed 200,000 (1/17), displaced 1,000,000 Child Soldiers, etc

Second Liberian Civil War

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

1999-2003 Charles Taylor exiled LURD vs. MDL vs. Taylor Rebel siege on Monrovia U.S Marine, UN Peacekeeping force Still recovering

Conflict in Cote d Ivoire
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Gbagbo vs. Ouattarra Attempted coup while in Italy 2002-2004 Rebel-held north, Government-held south Created a unity government 2011 (Second Ivorian Civil War)

Conflict Diamonds

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Mined in a war zone, finance insurgency Indistinguishable from other diamonds Certificate of origin Billions of dollars annually