Pollutants and its measurement

Particulate Matter So2 No2 Ammonia NH3 Ozone Metals CO PAH

Index
Method Prescribed in the standard are: SO2
} } } } } } }

Improved West and Gaeke Ultaviolet Florosence

NOx
Jacob & Hochheiser (Na-Arsenite) Chemiluminescence's Gravimetric TOEM Beta attenuation UV Photometric Chemiluminescence's Chemical Method AAS/ICP method after sampling on EPM 2000 or equivalent EDXRF Using Teflon filter

PM10 & PM 2.5

O3
} } }

Pb
} }

CO
}

Non dispersive infrared spectroscopy (NDIR)

NH3
} }

Chemiluminescence's Indophenols Blue Method Gas Chromatography based continuous analyzer Adsorption and desorption followed by GC Solvent Extraction followed by HPLC/GC AAS/ICP method after sampling on EPM 2000 or equivalent

Benzene
} }

Benzo (a) pyrene particulate phase only
}

Arsenic & Nickel
}

Particulate Matter
A. Suspended Particulate Matter (<100 µm) B. Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (<10 µm) C. Fine Particles (<2.5 µm). Particulate Matter is the term used for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air. Coarse particles larger than 10 µm is known as SPM (Suspended Particulate Matter). Particulate matter which is very small ( less than 10 µm) remain suspended in the air for a periods of time and easily inhaled into the deep lungs. Increased death (mortality) and diseases (morbidity). Currently PM10 have been identifying death effects associated with environmental levels of PM10 is significant issue.

Application and Limitation for Sampling Airborne Particulate Matter
} }

} } } }

As per the new notification it measures PM10, PM2.5 . A known volume of air is passed through initially weighted glass fibre filter paper (GF/A) of size 8 x 10 . Centrifugal force acts on the dust particles to separate it into two parts. Below 10 Qm collected on filter paper. Particle above 10 Qm collected in cyclone cap. The difference in initial and final weight of filter paper and cyclone cap used in calculation to express the result in Qg/m3.

Instructions for Measurement of Particulate Matter
Conditioning of Filter Paper: } Both blank and sampled filters shall be conditioned at 20-250C and relative humidity below 50% for 16 hrs. prior to weighing. Sampling: } Use fresh carbon brush after every 48 hrs of sampling or use brushless sampler. Handling: } Do not bend or fold the filter before collection of samples. Transport and Storage: } Filter papers can be transported in filter paper box.

Methods for Sampling Airborne Particulate Matter PM10 

RSPM sampling by Respirable Dust Sampler as per IS 5182 Part 32 involves the principle of filtering a known volume of air through a glass fiber filter paper of known weight at an average speed of 1.0-1.5 m3 air/min. RSPM (µg/m3) =
___________________________ 

(W2-W1) *106

Volume of air sampled Where W1 is initial weight (g) and W2 is final weight (g) of the filter paper

APM 550 uses 550 for PM10 & 2.5 APM a brush-less pump with a low noise. } Same instrument can be used for PM10 and PM2.5 sampling. } Lower sampling rate of 1m3/hour reduces filter choking even in areas having high FPM levels. } Critical Orifice maintains constant sampling rate of 1m3/hour. } Compact and portable for convenient field operation.
} The

Beta Ray Attenuation Measurement
‡This method provides a simple determination of concentration in units of milligrams or micrograms of particulate per cubic meter of air. ‡A small 14C (Carbon 14) element emits a constant source of high-energy electrons known as beta particles. ‡These beta particles are detected and counted by a sensitive scintillation detector. ‡An external pump pulls a measured amount of dust-laden air through a filter tape. ‡After the filter tape is loaded with ambient dust, it is automatically placed between the source and the detector thereby causing an attenuation of the beta particle signal. ‡The degree of attenuation of the beta particle signal is used to determine the mass concentration of particulate matter on the filter tape, and hence the volumetric concentration of particulate matter in ambient air.

Hourly tape spots

Particulate Monitor Flow diagram

Step - by step test instruction to be followed for Gaseous Sampling
Install the RDS at a height of 1.5 m. Switch on the instrument, Adjust the timer reading for required hours of sampling, Flow rate to be adjusted 0.5 litre per minute at the initial stage. Note the initial and final manometer readings, Fill the impinger with 10 ml by the absorbing solution, After 4 / 8 hours of operation transfer the media to plastic bottle (60 ml) and then analyse the sample.

SO2
}

Improved West and Gaeke } Ultraviolet Florescence Standard: µg/m3
Ecologically Sensitive Areas Industrial, Residential, Rural& other Areas

Annual Average 20 24 hr Average 80

50 80

SO process 67% 2 Source } Volcanoes } Manmade 33% } Fuel combustion } Coal } Biofuel } Diesel } Removal of Sox from fuel gases } Removal of Sulphur from fuel burning and use of low sulphur fuel } Sulphur can be remove by using chemical scrubber in which gases passes through lime stone.
} Natural

SO2 by Improved West and Gaeke Method
Principle
Dioxide is absorbed from air in a solution of Sodium/Potassium Tetra Chloromercurate (TCM) } Ambient SO2 react with it and forms a stable dichlorosulphitomercurate complex } The amount of SO2 then estimated by colour produced when p-rosaalinie is added to the solution.
} Sulphur

Range and concentration This method can measure Sensitivity over an approximate range of 0.005 to 5.0 ppm with an accuracy of ±10% (including sampling and analysis at the lower end of the range and ±5% at the upper end with the precision of about 2%.

Methodology for Analysis of SO2 (West & Gaeke Method)
Take the 10 ml portion of Sample.

Then add 2 ml sulphamic acid + 2 ml of formaldehyde + 1 ml p-rosaniline.

After 20 min., read the absorbance at 560 nm in a spectrometer with the blank as reference.

Reaction Mechanism
} HgCl4-2+SO2+

H2O =HgCl2SO3-2 +2H+2Cl-

} SO2+H2O+HCHO=HOCH2-SO3H

C6H4-NH3 } NH3-C6H4-C-C6H4-NH3 + HOCH2-SO3H= prosaline methyle Cl sulphonic acid

}A

midget impinger contains absorbing solution } A pump suitable to desire flow rate of 0.2-1.0 lpm } A volume meter with thermometer, manometer and timer.

Equipments used

Chemicals Required
Absorbent
} 0.1

M Sodium ²tetra chloromercurate (Na2HgCl4) (27.2 g HgCl2 and 11.7 g NaCl in 1000 ml D.W.)

Rosaaniline hydrochloride(0.04%)
} 0.2

gm of dye in 100 ml of DDW, after 48 hrs filter the solution (This is stable for three month if kept in dark)---(A) } Take 20 ml of (A) in 100 ml flask add 6ml conc. HCl and after five min fill up to the mark with DDW. (stable 2
week if refrigerated)

Formaldehyde (0.2%)
} 5ml

of 40% in 1000ml DDW

Standard Solution
} Calibration-0.0123

N Sodium Metabisulphite (1ml=150 µl SO2)

(Dissolve 640 mg of metabisulphite (65%.5)as SO2 in 1 liter of DDW standardized with iodine using starch as indicator)

} 0.01 Iodine(Dissolve 12.69 of resublimed iodine in 25 ml of solution made with 15 gm iodate-free KI, Dilute to 1 liter, pipette 100 into 1000ml flask, fill to mark with 1.5%KI, check the normality by standard thiosulphate)

Standardization of Follow the following steps: metabisulphie } Standardize sodium thiosulphate with potassium dichromate } Standardize iodine with standard thiosulphate } Standardize metabisulphite with standard iodine and finally make the solution of 0.0123N } Dilute 2ml of this in 100 ml with absorbing reagent, this is equivalent to 3µl of SO2 per ml

} 10

Procedurein midget impinger ml absorbing

} Bubble

known volume of air through any gas collecting device. (This is stable up to three days) } Adjust volume to 10 ml with D.W. (If any evaporation loss occurs) } Add 1ml each of complexing reagent and mix. } Prepared a blank in same manner. } After 20 min read absorbance at 560 nm. } Calculate ppm or µg/m3 of SO2. 1ppm=1µl of SO2 /liter of air

SO2
Ultraviolet Fluorescent } Sulphur dioxide absorbs UV energy at 190nm-230nm free from interference and come to the exited state, producing fluorescence, which is measured by PMT.
} The

fluorescence reaction impinging up on the PMT is directly proportional to to the concentration of SO2.

Optical measurement theory

Exhaust air is scrubbed with a charcoal scrubber to eliminate Hydrocarbons and SO2. This air is then ideal for use in the hydrocarbon kicker to remove hydrocarbons from sample air.
Hydrocarbon kicker Sample Inlet Particulate Filter Fluorescence Cell Microprocessor SO2 Outputs

PMT

UV lamp

SO2 Analyzer Flow diagram

Optical filter

SO2 + UV
exhaust

SO2 *

SO2 + photon

Oxides of Nitrogen (as NO2)
Jacob & Hochheiser (Na-Arsenite) } Chemiluminescence's Standard: (µg/m3)
}
Ecologically Sensitive Areas Industrial, Residential, Rural& other Areas

Annual Average 20 24 hr Average 80

50 80

} Combustion

of Coal, Oil, Natural gas and

Source

Gasoline } Average residence time in atmosphere is 4 days. } At traffic rush time (6-8am) level of NO increases. } At mid morning level of NO2 increases due to conversion of NO to NO2 by UV rays.

Jacob & Hochheiser (Na-Arsenite)

Principle Nitrogen oxides as nitrogen dioxide are collected by bubbling air through a sodium hydroxide solution to form a stable solution of sodium nitrite. The nitrite ion produced during sampling is determined colorimetrically by reacting the exposed absorbing reagent with phosphoric acid, sulphanilam-ide and N (1-napthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride at 540nm .

Range
}

Range of the method is 20-740 µg/m3(0.01 to 0.4 ppm) nitrogen dioxide in a 50 ml absorbing reagent with a sampling rate of 200ml/min for 24 hr.

Reagents } Absorbing reagent
(4.0gm NaOH + 1 gm sodium arsenite in 1000 ml D.W.)

} }

Sulphanilamide: 20gm in700ml D.W. NEDA: 0.5 gm of N (1-Napthyle) ethylene diamine dihydrochloride

} Respirable

along with gaseous attachment. Gaseous attachment contains 4 (2 for SO2 and 2 for NOX) midget impingers containing the absorbing solution. } Flow rate of gas in the midget impinger is to be adjusted through manometer of the gaseous attachment

Equipment used Dust Sampler

Methodology for Analysis of NOx
Pipette 10 ml of the collected sample into a test tube.

Add 1 ml of H2O2, 10.0 of sulphanilamide solution and 1.4 ml of NEDA solution with thorough mixing after the addition of each reagent.

After a 10-minute colour-development interval, measure the absorbance at 540 nm against the blank. Read Qg NO2 /ml from the standard curve.

For calibration the amount of Potassium/Sodium Nitrate used can be calculated: G=(1.500/A)x100 Where: G=Amount of Sodium Nitrate 1.500=Gravimetric Factor A=Assay, percent Mass NO2 in µg/m3 = (µg NO2/ml)/(V x 0.82) Where: V=Volume of Air Sampled

Calculation

NOx by Chemiluminescence's
} Emission

of light from electrically exited species due to the chemical reaction. } NO+O3=NO2* + O2 } NO2*=NO2+hv } In this process light energy produce is directly proportional to the NO concentration. } NO is associated with NO2 therefore it is necessary to convert NO2 to NO before analysis

Chemiluminescence
} Sample

air is drawn into the reaction cell via two separate (alternating) channels the NO and NOX. The NOX channel travels through a delay coil enabling the same sample of air to be sampled for NO, NO2 and NOX. } The NOX channel passes through an NO2 to NO converter, NO2 is converted to NO } Sample air (NO & NOX channels) enter the measurement cell where NO reacts } with Ozone in the following reaction } NO + O3 -> NO2* + O2 } Equation 1 Chemiluminescence reaction

} } } }

This reaction releases energy in the form of Chemiluminescence radiation (1100nm), which is filtered by the optical band pass filter and detected by the Photomultiplier tube (PMT) The level of Chemiluminescence detected is directly proportionally to the NO in sample NO2 is calculated by subtracting the NO measurement from NOX measurement NOX = NO + NO2 or NO2 = NOX ² NO

3-way solenoid valve Sample Inlet Particulate Filter Microprocessor

NO2

NO
Reaction Cell

NO,NO2,NOx Outputs

Molycon

room air Permeation Dryer Ozone Generator PMT

NO + O3
exhaust

NO2 *

NO + photon

NOx Analyzer Flow diagram

Ammonia (NH3)
} Chemiluminescence's } Indophenols
Ecologically Sensitive Areas

Blue Method
Industrial, Residential, Rural& other Areas

Standard: (µg/m3)

Annual Average: 100 24 hr. Average 400

100 400

‡ Ammonia in the atmosphere is collected by bubbling of measured amount of air through a dilute solution of sulfuric acid to form ammonium sulphate. ‡ The ammonium sulfate formed in the sample is analysed colorimetric by reaction with phenol and alkaline sodium hypochlorite to produces Indophenols a blue dye. ‡ Sodium nitropruside accelerated the reaction as an catalyst.

Principle

} With

conc. range of 200-700µg/m . of air may be determine with the sampling time of one hr. limit of detection of the analysis is 0.02µNH3/ml.

Range & Sensitivity 1-2 3 lit/mina a sampling rate of

} The

Reagents
Ammonia free D.D.W. Absorbing Solution (0.1 N) (2.3 ml of conc. H2SO4(18M) in 1lit.DDW.)

Sodium Nitropruside:
(2g in 100ml of DDW) (Stable for two months in refrigerator)

Sodium Hydroxide(6.75M)
(270g in 1lit.)

Buffer: } 50g Na3PO4.12H2O in and 74ml of 6.75 NaOH in DDW. Working Hypochloride: } Mix 30ml of 0.1NSodium hypochloride+30ml of 6.75 M NaOH in 100ml DDW.

Working Phenol:
} 20ml

of 45% phenol in 1ml of 2%sodium nitropruside and dilute to 100ml) (Prepare fresh every
at 4hrsAmmonia:

} Dissolve

3.18gm of NH4Cl in 1lit.DDW.(Stable for two month when preserve with CHCl3)

Procedure
} Bubble

air through any gas sampling device to 10 ml of absorbing reagent. } The sampling rate should be 1-2 lit/min for adequate sampling time. } Transfer the sample in 25ml glass stoppred flask. } Add 2ml of Buffer. } Add 5ml of working phenol solution mix and then add 2.5 ml of working hypochloride solution with rapid mixing. } Dilute to 25 ml and keep it in dark for 30 min. } Measure developed blue colour at 630nm

} Pipet

standard in 25ml flask and make 10 ml with absorbing and then proceed as in sample. } These correspond to 5,10 and 15 µg ammonia /25ml of sample.

Calibration working 0.5,1,0,1.5 of

Calculation

} µg/m3

NH3=W/V0

} Where:

W=µgNH3 in 25 ml from standard V= Volume of Air sampled

Ozone (O3)
UV Photometric } Chemiluminescence's } Chemical Method Standard: (µg/m3)
}
Ecologically Sensitive Areas Industrial, Residential, Rural& other Areas

8 hr. Average: 100 1 hr. Average 180

100 180

Principle } Air containing Ozone is drown through a midget impinger containing 10 ml of 1% potassium iodide in a neutral (pH 6.8)buffer composed of 0.1M disodium hydrogen phosphate and 0.1M potassium dihydregen phosphate. } The iodine librated in the absorbing reagent is determined spectrophotometrically at 352 nm.

Ozone: Chemical Method

Chemical Reaction
} }

O3+3KI+H2O=KI3+2KOH+O2 The analysis must be completed within 30 min to 1hrs after sampling.

Range and sensitivity } The range extend from 0.01ppm to about 10 ppm. } The sensitivity of method is depend on the volume of air sampled.

the recommended range is about ±5%deviation from the mean. } The accuracy of this method has not been established. Calibration is based on the assumed stoichiometry of the reaction with the absorbing solution.

} The

Precision and Accuracy Precision of the method within

} Potassium

Chemicals Required dihydrogen phosphate ( KH2PO4

), } Bisodium hydrogen phosphate ( Na2NH4 ) } Potassium iodide } Sodium hydroxide

Reagents
} Dissolve

14 g of potassium dihydrogen phosphate( KH2PO4 ), 14.20 g of disodium hydrogen phosphate ( Na2NH4 ) and 10 g of potassium iodide successively and dilute the mixture to 1 litre with distilled water. Age at room temperature for at least 1 day before use. the pH and adjust to 6.8 with sodium hydroxide or potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution. This absorbing solution may be stored for several weeks in a glass stoppered brown bottle in the refrigerator and for shorter periods at room temperature without deterioration. absorbing solution should not be exposed to sunlight.

} Measure

} The

Standard Iodine Solution
Dissolve 16 g of potassium iodide and 3.173 g of iodine successively and dilute the mixture with distilled water to exactly 500 ml to make a 0.05N solution. Age at room temperature least one day before use.

} Pipette

10 ml of the absorbing solution into the bubbler. } Sample at a rate of 0.5 to 3 litres/min for up to 30 minutes. } The flow rate and time of sampling should be adjusted to obtain a sufficiently large concentration of oxidant in the absorbing solution. } Approximately 2 µg of ozone may be obtained in the absorbing solution at an atmospheric concentration of 0.01 ppm by sampling for 30 minutes at 3 litres/min.

Sampling exactly

} Prepare

iodine solution by pipetting exactly 5 ml of the 0.05 N standard solution ( normality should be checked before use ) into a 100 ml volumetric flask and diluting to the mark with absorbing solution. four or more standard solutions in 25 ml volumetric fasks by pipetting 0.1 to 1 ml portions of the 0.0025 N iodine solution into the flasks, diluting to the mark with absorbing solution and mixing. after preparation of this series, read the absorbance of each at 352 nm. The solutions should cover the 0.1to 1 unit

a 0.0025 N Calibration

} Prepare

} Immediately    

If significant evaporation of solution occurs, add double distilled water to bring the liquid volume to 10 ml. Read the absorbance at 352 nm against double distilled water within a 30 to 60-minute period after collection in a I-cm cuvette or tube. Ozone liberates iodine through both a fast and a slow set of reactions. Some of the organic oxidants also have been shown to cause slow formation of iodine. Some indication of the presence of such oxidants and of gradual fading due to reductants may be obtained by taking several readings during an extended period of time. Determine the blank correction (to be subtracted from sample absorbance) every few days by reading the absorbance of unexposed reagent.

Procedure

Calculations
} Subtract

the absorbance of the blank from the absorbance of the standards. Plot corrected absorbance's against the normality's of the standardized solutions. the line of the best fit the normality corresponding to an absorbance of exactly one shall be determined. obtain a value, M, representing microlitres of ozone required by 10 m.l of absorbing solution to produce an absorbance of one, multip!y this normality

} From

} To

}

For I-cm cells, M should be continued«« 9.6 approximately

Calculations

Results for air samples may be computed from equation:
}

Oxidant ( as O3), ppm = AM/V

where } A = corrected absorbance, and } v = volume of air sample in litres ) per 10 ml of absorbing solution corrected to 25°C and 760 mmHg (correction is ordinarily small and may be omitted). NOTE - 1 mg/litre = 509 ppm of ozone at 25°C and 760 mmHg

UV Absorption
The UV photometer determines the concentration of Ozone (O3) in a sample gas at ambient pressure by detecting the absorption of UV radiation in a glass absorption tube. ‡ Ozone shows strong absorption of UV light at 254nm ‡ Sample air is passed into the glass absorption tube (measurement cell) ‡ Within the measurement cell a single beam of UV radiation passes through the sample and is absorbed by the O3 ‡ The Solar blind vacuum photodiode detects any UV that is not absorbed ‡ The strength of the UV signal being detected is proportional to the amount of UV light being absorbed by O3 ‡ The analyzer uses the Beer-Lambert relationship to

‡O3 is not the only gas that absorbs UV (254nm), SO2 and aromatic compounds also absorb radiation at this wavelength ‡To eliminate these interferences a second cycle is performed where sample air is passed through an ozone scrubber which allows all interfering gases through but eliminates ozone thereby accurately measuring interfering gases effects on signal and removing them from the Microprocessor Sam Output sample measurement signal ar ate
Filter Detector

UV source

Ab r tion (Measurement Cell) ex aust

O3 Analyzer Flow diagram

Metals
Pb } AAS/ICP method after sampling on EPM 2000 or equivalent } EDXRF Using Teflon filter Standard:(µg/m3) Industrial, Residential, Ecologically Sensitive Rural& other Areas Areas Annual Average: 0.5 0.5 24 hr. Average 1.0 1.0 Arsenic & Nickel AAS/ICP method after sampling on EPM 2000 or equivalent Standard:(ng/m3) Industrial, Residential, Ecologically Sensitive Rural& other Areas Areas Annual Average: (As) 6.0 6.0 Annual Average: (Ni) 20.0 20.0

Sample Collection and Analysis
are associated mainly with the particulate matter therefore collected on EPM2000 cellulose membrane filter paper by any dust collecting device. } Calculate the dust collecting area of filter. } This filter will be digested with digestion mixture (6:1 of nitric acid and perchloric acid) and digested at 1000C. } Digested samples will be filtered through Whatman filter paper (Grade No1) } Make the volume up to 25 ml with double distilled water and analyzed for Pb, Hg, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni using AAS.
} Metals

Calculation
Metal Concentration (µg/m3) = (Concentration in sample- Blank) x

Area of filter Volume of air sampled

Carbon Monoxide
Non dispersive infrared spectroscopy (NDIR)
Standard: mg/m3
Industrial, Residential, Rural& other Areas Areas Ecologically Sensitive

8 hr.Average 1 hr.Average

02 04

02 04

Carbon Monoxide
Non dispersive Infrared Gas filter Correlation The measurement of Carbon Monoxide is completed via the following principles and measurement techniques:

Measurement cell theory

‡CO absorbs infrared radiation (IR) at a wavelength near 4.7 microns ‡IR radiation (at 4.7 microns) is passed through a 5 meter path length through sample air ‡The strength of the signal received is proportional to the amount of CO in the sample as shown in the Beer Lambert Law ‡A band pass filter is fitted to the signal detector to ensure only light near 4.7 microns wavelength is detected

‡A gas filter correlation wheel is combined with this system in the light path. ‡This wheel contains 3 parts to increase measurement accuracy, CO, N2 and the mask ‡The CO window contains a saturation of CO which acts as a reference beam ‡The N2 window does not absorb IR at 4.7 microns and is used during normal CO measurement Mi and ‡The maskSample totally blocks the light sourceropro e or is used to determine Inlet O Output background signals ulate the strength of other signals relative to and Parti each other and the ilter background
IR ete tor IR our e Ga ilter Wheel Ab orption Mea urement ell exhau t

CO Analyzer Flow diagram

METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) IN AIR PARTICULATE MATTER PRINCIPLE This method is designed to collect particulate phase PAHs in ambient air and fugitive emissions and to determine individual PAH compounds. It is based on high volume ( ~ 1.2 m3 / min) sampling method capable of detecting sub ng/ m3 concentration of PAH with a total sample volume ~ 480 m3 / of air over a period of 8 hours with same filter. It Involves collection from air particulate on a fine particle (glass-fibre) filter using high volume sampler for total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) or respirable dust sampler for respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM or PM10) and subsequent analysis by Capillary Gas Chromatograph (GC) using Flame Ionization Detector (FID). If sampling period is extended to 24 hours without changing the filter, it may enhance sample loss due to volatility or reactions of PAHs on collection media.

Major PAH Compounds
Acenaphthylene(C10H8) Acenaphthene(C10H8) Fluorene(C10H8) Naphthalene (C10H8) Phenanthrene (C14H10) Anthracene (C14H10) Fluoranthene (C16H10) Pyrene (C16H10) Chrysene (C18H12) Benzo(a) anthracene (C18H12) Benzo(b) f luoranthene (C20H12) Benzo(k) fluoranthene (C20H12) Coronene (C24H12) Benzo(e) pyrene (C20H12) Benzo(a) pyrene (C20H12) Perylene (C20H12) Benzo(ghi) perylene (C22H12) Dibenzo(ah) anthracenes (C22H14) Indeno(cd) pyrene (C22H12)

ANALYSIS SAMPLE PRESERVATION Sample should be wrapped in a aluminum-foil and should be stored in a refrigerator at 4oC in dark place to avoid photo-oxidation of PAHs for a period upto two months. However, sample extracts may be strored in dried form for a longer period SAMPLE PROCESSING The filters samples are extracted with Toluene using ultrasonication & concentrated to 1ml volume . GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS Dilute the extracted residue and make up to 0.5 ml or 1 ml. Inject 1 µl or 2 µl into GC-FID for analysis. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY CONDITIONS Gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector (FID), a split injector and capillary column (Phase cross linked 5% phenyl, methyl-silicone) : 25 meter length, 0.20 mm inner diameter (I.D.), 0.33 µm film thickness with following GC conditions:

Rotary Vacuum Evaporator

Measurement Method of PAH (ISO, BIS, CPCB, Tyagi, 2004 Method) - Individual PAHS

CALCULATION 7.1 Calculate the concentration in (ng/µl ) of each identified analyte in the sample extract ( Cs ) as follows: Cs (ng/µl) = (As * Cis ) / ((Ais * RF ) Where As = Area count of characteristic analyte sample/peak being measured. Ais = Area count of characteristic internal standard/peak. Cis = Concentration of internal Standard.

The concentration in ng/ m3 of each analyte in the air sampled is given by: C = Cs x Ve / Vs Where Ve = final volume of extract, µl

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful