Resmy.

S No:041
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Things Included… Introduction

History Different standards Working Process How we get? Applications Gains And Losses Achievements and dominance Future Conclusion
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• Acronym for Moving Pictures Experts Group. to • It is a committee formed by the ISOthe develop an international standard for • •

INTRODUCTION

coded representation of moving pictures and association audio on digital storage media. Its official designation is ISO/IEC/ JTC/SC29 WG11. It was established with the mandate to develop standards for coded representation of moving pictures, audio and their combination.
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History

• Founded in January 1988. • Father of MPEG is Leonardo Chiariglione. • Its first meeting was in May 1988 in •

Ottawa, Canada in which 25 experts were participated. As of late 2005, 350 experts from some 200 companies & organizations from about 20 countries take part in its meeting.

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The main formats are:…..MPEG-1 …..MPEG-2 …..MPEG-3 …..MPEG-4 …..MPEG-7 …..MPEG-21

Different Formats

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MPEG-1
• • • • • •
Established in 1992. Its standard is ISO/IEC 11172 Designed to produce reasonable quality images & sound at low bit rates. It is intended to fit the bandwidth of CDROM, Video-CD & CD-i. It usually comes in Standard Interchange Format (SIF). It can be encoded at bit rates as high as 4-5Mbits/sec.
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Parts of MPEG-1
It mainly consists of 5 parts:…IS 11172-1:(System)--for synchronization & multiplexing of audio and video. …IS 11172-2:(Video)--for compression of noninterlaced video signals. …IS 11172-3:(Audio)--for compression of audio signals using high performance perceptual coding schemes. contains 3 layers:MP1/MPEG-1 Part3 Layer1(MPEG-1 Audio Layer1) MP2/MPEG-1 Part3 Layer2(MPEG-1 Audio Layer2) MP3/MPEG-1 Part3 Layer3(MPEG-1 Audio Layer3) …IS 11172-4:(Conformance)--for testing conformance …IS 11172-5:(Simulation)--for reference software.
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Uses of mpeg-1
• • •
Used to transmit data over digital telephone networks such as ADSL, Video on Demand, Video Kiosks,& corporate presentations and training networks. It is also used as an archival medium, or in an audio-only form to transmit audio over the internet. Its strength is its high compression ratio with relatively high quality.

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• Established in 1994. • Its standard is ISO/IEC 13818 • Is a standard for “generic coding of moving • • • • Users are broadcast & cable companies.
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MPEG-2

pictures & associated audio information” Designed to produce higher quality images at higher bit rates. Delivers true broadcast quality video. Bit rates is between 3-10Mbits/sec.

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Continued…
Is widely used as the format of digital TV signals that are broadcast by terrestrial, cable, & direct broadcast systems. It specifies the format of movies and other programs on DVD. With some enhancements, they are also used in HDTV transmission systems. They are fully capable of paying back MPEG-1 video streams.
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Mainly contains 4 parts. They were developed in a joint collaborative team with ITU-T. They are …. Part1:- System: ISO/IEC 13818-1 Contains 2 formats: transport steam & program stream

Parts of mpeg2

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Continued…
• • •
…..Part2:- Video: ISO/IEC 13818-2 Similar to mpeg-1 std But provides support for interlaced video It is not optimized for low bit rates. …..Part3:- Audio Section: enhances MPEG’s1 audio by coding of audio programs by more than 2 channels. …..Part 7:- specifies a non-backwardscompatible audio format. -referred as MPEG-2 AAC
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MPEG-3

• It was initially intended to cover HDTV, • •
providing larger sampling dimensions. Bit rate is between 20-40Mbits/sec. It was dropped because MPEG-2 can be finessed to cover the requirements of HDTV.

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• It is a standard used to compress audio and • • •

MPEG-4

• Now it supports up to 4Mbps.
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visual digital data. Initiated in 1995 & finalized in the end of 1998. Standard is ISO/IEC 14496. Has very low bit rates between 4800 & 64,000 bits/sec.

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• It is designed to use in broadcast, interactive • •
& conversational environments. It preserves compatibility with major existing standards:MPEG-1,2 &VRML for 3D rendering. It is a still developing standard and is divided into 6 different parts.

Continued…

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• Part1:: ISO/IEC 14496-1: Systems • Part2:: ISO/IEC 14496-2: Visual • Part3:: ISO/IEC 14496-3: Audio • Part4:: Conformance testing • Part5:: Software • Part10:: Delivery Multimedia Integration
Framework

Parts of MPEG4

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.…Integration of synthetic and natural content. .…Support for 2D and 3D content. .…Support for several types of interactivity. .…Coding at very low rates .…Support for management and protection of intellectual property. Over VRML .…Native support for natural content and realtime streamed content using URLs .…Efficient representation of the scene description

Advantages of MPEG-4 Over MPEG-1&2

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MPEG-7

• Formalized into a standard in September 2000 • Formally called Multimedia Content Description •
Interface Designed to standardize: ….a set of description schemes & descriptors ….a scheme for coding the description ….a language to specify the DDL

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called MPEG-47 & • Combination of MPEG-4&7 isfor Killer Applications. described by mpeg as Tools to be the ideal • It is intendedcontent, content solution for efficient streaming of manipulation& indexing

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of this content The applications that benefits from MPEG-7 are:: …Digital Libraries (image catalogue, musical dictionary) …Multimedia directory services (yellow pages) …Broadcast media selection (radio & TV channel) …Multimedia editing (personalized electronic news service, media authoring)
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• It aims at defining an open framework for • •

MPEG-21

multimedia applications. Standard is ISO 21000 It is an XML standard, designed to communicate machine-readable information & do so in a “ubiquitous, unambiguous and secure” manner.

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• • • •

Working of MPEGshades using compression It reduces colors or

• MPEG uses a compression algorithms.
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techniques. If the eye won’t see a part, don’t encode it. Thus reduces redundant information. If the background doesn’t change, don’t encode it. Approximately 75% of compression comes from reducing redundant data describing motion.

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Compression techniques Video compression

states that ::- “Divide the picture into 8*8 blocks, determine relevant picture information, discard redundant or insignificant information & encode relevant picture information with the least no: of bits”. Main functions in this are: DCT, Zig-Zag Scanning, Quantization, Entropy Encoding, Motion Estimation.

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Entropy encoding
For encoding the most frequently occuring patterns with least no: of bits. Has 2 process ….Zero Run Length Coding (RLC) ….Huffman Coding

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Basic algorithm is: ....Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) -- for the removal of spatial redundancy.

Compression Algorithm

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Discrete Cosine Transform The 8x8 block values are coded by means of •

the discrete cosine transform. We can define all the 64 values by only 5 integers if you apply the following formula

Where f(x,y) is the brightness of the pixel at position [x,y].
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Continued…
After performing this we get an 8*8 matrix that contains almost all values equal to zero. By rejecting the pixel values, in the place were we get the matrix value zero, we get a compressed picture.

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Working model

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Process

• It exists to produce standards. • Published standards are the last stage of a • •

long process. It starts with proposal of new work in a committee. These New Proposals (NP) are approved by the SubCommittee(SC29) & at the JTC1.

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Continued…
and video coding standards • For audio produced is the Verificationthe first document Model


• • •

(VM). After reaching a sufficient confidence, a Working Draft (WD) is produced. At the planned time, WD has become sufficiently solid and becomes Committee Draft (CD). It is then sent to National Bodies (NB) for ballot. If no: of +ve votes is above quorum, it becomes Final Committee Draft (FCD).

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Continued…
• • • •
Again after a second ballot, if the no: of +ve votes is above quorum, it becomes Final Draft International Standard (FDIS). ISO will then hold a yes/no ballot with NBs where no technical changes are allowed. Finally that document will become an International Standard (IS). Output documents are stored in the MPEG ftp site

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How we get?
• •
MPEG standards can be directly purchased from ISO, from their website at http://www.iso.org/ or from National Body. Some of the standards are publicly available (including reference software).

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Applications
MPEG-1 Video Kiosk Video On Demand (VOD) Video Dial Tone Training Video Library MPEG-2 CATV (CAble TeleVision) DBS (Direct Broadcast Satellite) Other applications Digital Video Tape High Density CD Video Conferencing Digital Camcorders

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Gains
Produces high quality pictures. Different formats are used in: DVDs Digital TV SDTV (Standard Definition TV) HDTV (High Definition TV) Has also taken projects for the standard bodies: …AES—Audio Engineering Society. …ATSC—Advanced Television Systems Committee. …DAVIC—Digital Audio Video Integration Consortium. …ITU-R,T—International Telecommunications Union (Radio,Telecom sector). …JPEG—Joint Pictures Experts Group. …W3C—World Wide Web Consortium.

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• Mpeg audio are not widely accepted as its • •

Losses

video cousins are. The video quality of MPEG-2 are superior to MPEG-1,but MPEG-1 remains useful and still being used. Tight competition between Dolby digital and MPEG. Dolby has 5.1 channel audio, but MPEG had only a stereo solution.

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• • •

MPEG has been adopted by leading multimedia technology firms like Philips, Samsung, Intel & Sony for their products. For DVDs, multichannel audio MPEG-2 is used Used by ISDN to provide very high quality audio & video.

Achievements & Dominance

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Future …
• • •
IBM Corp.’s Internet Advanced Technology Group are going to market a secure system for downloading digital music files over the Internet MP3 has moved onto make mainstream music radar, car players & hybrid stereo components. MPEG-4 are making provisions for integrating various forms of 2D,3D,natural & synthesized contents and support for interactivity and scene description.

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Conclusion
• • • •
MPEG is currently powerful as a standards body. This is because of the technical superiority of its standards &the broad applicability of the standards. They must also watch out for market prices for hardware for new technologies. Their concerns must be acknowledged in upcoming standards whether justifiable or not.

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