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3G BASIC THEORY

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1 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
WHAT IS 3G?
- stands for THIRD GENERATION mobile technology
- it is a wireless technology designed to allow a certain
device to access to voice, video and data services at
much faster rates than can be achieved today

- NTC clarified it viewed 3G as enhancement and


improvement of the 2nd Generation Technology

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2 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
OBJECTIVE:
To EXPLORE:

- The History and roadmap of mobile Telecommunication

- 3G Basic Technology

- 3G Basic Network Architecture

- 3G Basic Nature and Behavior

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3 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
The mobile communications industry has evolved in
three stages:

1G 2G – 2.5 G 3G

Voice call Voice call,fax, High speed data transfer.


data and text New video, audio and Mobile
messaging TV,Internet browsing and Music
download

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3G SERVICES

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3G – 3 rd
Generation: Digital Cellular –
1) Feature:
– Wide band code division multiple access (WCDMA)
technology
– digital signal
– Broadband (5Mhz Bandwidth)
– integrated service system integrating all current mobile
telephone system functions providing multiple services
– large capacity
2) Radio Frequency Spectrum (UHF – Ultra high Frequency)
– frequency spectrum around 2000MHz or 2GHz
– Data rate up to 2000kbps or 2Mbps

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What triggered
them to implement 3G?

Voice services currently account for more than


90 percent of income, but by the year 2005 it
has been forecasted that data and other non-
voice services will generate 50 percent of
operator income.

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8 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
What is IMT-2000

"International Mobile Telecommunications – 2000 (IMT-2000)


represents the global standard for meeting the emerging needs of
mobile telecommunications in the 21st century whereby mobile
telecommunications subscribers will be able to access voice, data,
Internet, and multimedia services at any time and at any place."

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9 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
The Goal of IMT 2000
- Higher transmit rate 2Mbps
- Rich and colorful service
- Good voice quality
- Larger capacity
- Lower cost
- Good security performance
- High frequency efficiency
- Increased Mobility
- Easy to transition from 2G

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10 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
IMT-2000 Candidate Harmonization
A number of technologies were submitted many of which had
distinct similarities
Of course operators were generally keen on a single standard
to allow global roaming and economies of scale
• Operators Harmonization Group (OHG)
This led to two partnership projects being set up:
• 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
– Dealing with WCDMA (Also Known as Universal Mobile
Telephone Systems UMTS) and related candidate
technologies
• 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2)
– Dealing with cdma2000 and related candidate
technologies

U101 11
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11 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
IMT 2000 Roadmap

HSDPA HSUPA

3GPP 3GPP2
3rd Generation Partnership Project
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Where is
Philippines?

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NTC Spectrum Allocation for WCDMA
Uplink Downlink
1920-1980 2110-2170

1920M 1980M 2110M 2170M

( Uplink : 1920-1980 ) ( Downlink : 2110-2170 )

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NTC Allocated for GLOBE 3G (WCDMA)
Uplink Downlink
1920-1940 2110-2130

1920 1980 2110 2170


M M M M
( Uplink : 1920-1940 ) ( Downlink : 2110-2130 )

Uplink Downlink
1960-1980 2150-2170

1960 1980 2110 2170


M M M M
( Uplink : 1960-1980 ) ( Downlink : 2110-2170 )

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RADIO FREQUENCIES

Where IS GLOBE
3G ?

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Globe needs these 3G frequency spectra to
upgrade its current CMTS (Cellular Mobile
Telephone System) services to 3G.
Globe will remit the corresponding spectrum
user fees and post a performance bond
equivalent to P300 million to the NTC to
comply with the rules on the allocation of 3G
radio frequency bands.

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17 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
HIERARCHICAL CELL STRUCTURES

Macro Cell
Few meters
to 100
Pico Cell
Few meters
to 100

Micro cell
200 -500 meter
range

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HIERARCHICAL CELL STRUCTURES
Macro Cells - carry the faster-moving
wide-area traffic.
Micro Cells carry the higher-data-rate
pedestrian traffic.
Pico Cells are deployed to cover ‘hot
spots’ to relive capacity bottlenecks
such as in offices or airports where
user density is particularly high.

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WHAT IS WCDMA?

- stands for Wide-Band Code Division Multiple Access


- is a type of Cellular Network
- it is the higher speed transmission protocol used in
the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telephone Systems)

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W-CDMA is a wideband spread-spectrum mobile
Air-interface that utilizes the direct-sequence spread
Spectrum method of asynchronous code division
multiple access to achieve higher speeds and
support more users compared to the implementation
of time division multiplexing (TDMA) used by
2G GSM networks.

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What is Bandwidth?

Bandwidth is the difference between


the upper and lower cutoff frequencies,
and is typically measured in hertz

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What is the
Bandwidth?

1920M 1930M

5Mhz

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What is Code?

A code is a rule for converting


a piece of information (for
example, a letter, word,
phrase, or gesture) into
another form or representation
(one sign into another sign),
not necessarily of the same
type.

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Example of a Code?

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WCDMA CODE
Scrambling Code

Code Channels Code Channels


Scrambling Code 1 Scrambling Code 2
A B
• Scrambling Codes
– Are used to separate cells and terminals from each other rather than
purely channels
A UE is surrounded by Base Stations, all of them transmitting on the same
CDMA Frequency.
A UE must be able to discriminate between different Sectors of different Node
B’s.
The Downlink Scrambling Codes can be used in 512 different ways in a CDMA
system. Each one of them constitutes a mathematical code which can be used
to identify a particular sector.
.
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26 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
What is Multiple Access?
Simultaneous private use of a transmission
medium by multiple, independent users.
Imagine you are in a cocktail party…
Now imagine you are trying to talk to
somebody
If you are trying to listen to somebody you
need to be able to pick out their speech
from everybody else’s speech
Everybody is using the same medium to
talk – the air in the room
There are a number of different Multiple
Access strategies…

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What is Channel?

An individually-assigned, dedicated pathway


through a transmission medium for one user’s
information.

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What is Transmission Medium
The transmission medium is a resource
that can be subdivided into individual
channels according to the technology
used.

Transmission

Medium

Each pair of users


enjoys a dedicated,
private circuit through
the transmission
medium, unaware that
the other users exist.

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Types of Multiple Access
A. FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
• Each user on a different frequency
• A channel is a frequency

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Types of Multiple Access
B. TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
• Each user on a different window period in time (“time slot”)
• A channel is a specific time slot on a specific frequency

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Types of Multiple Access
C. CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
• A channel is a unique code pattern
• Each user uses the same frequency all the time, but
mixed with different distinguishing code patterns

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32 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access

Frequency reuse
1
factor is 1;
CDMA 1
1
1
network design
1 1
1
1
1
1 and expanding
1
1
1 become much
5 MHz 1
Typical Frequency Reuse N=1 easier

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TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

Narrowband
Signal
Slow Slow
Information Information
Sent Recovered

TX RX

•Traditional technologies try to squeeze the


signal into the minimum required bandwidth

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34 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
WCDMA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM

Wideband Signal

Slow Slow
Information Information
Sent
. Recovered

TX RX

Fast Fast
Spreading Spreading
Sequence Sequence

•Spread spectrum systems mix their input


data with a fast spreading sequence and
transmit a wideband signal
•The spreading sequence is independently
regenerated at the receiver and mixed with
the incoming wideband signal to recover the
original data

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35 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
SPREAD SPECTRUM SYSTEM HISTORY

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What is SPREAD SPECTRUM SYSTEM?
Spread Spectrum techniques are methods by which
more frequency bandwidth is deliberately used than
motivated by the actual information rate (spectrum
spreading). On one hand, this implies a certain
waste of valuable frequency spectrum; but on the
other hand,these techniques have advantages such
as increasing the resistance to
interference,jamming and interception.

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37 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Spread Spectrum Principles
Shannon's Formula

C=B*log2(1+S/N)

Where,
C is capacity of channel, b/s
B is signal bandwidth, Hz
S is average power for signal
N is average power for noise
Claude Shannon is the Father of Information Theory. It was entirely
new that information of any kind-- whether for use on a telegraph,
telephone, radio, or television-- could be decomposed into zeros and
ones, encoded, transmitted, and decoded at the other end which is
called the Mathematical Theory of Communication. He went on to
present the concept of the maximum rate of transmission on a
channel-- the capacity or "Shannon limit"-- which provides the
benchmark against which all codes and modulations are measured.
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38 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
SPREAD SPECTRUM SYSTEM ILLUSTRATION

MAT
HAM H
ME R
Power is “Spread” Over a Larger Bandwidth

MATH
HAMMER

12.2 KHz
5 MHz

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39 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
SPREAD SPECTRUM SYSTEM
I. Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FH-SS)

The SS technique Frequency-Hopping


Spread Spectrum (FH-SS) involves
transmitting a signal with a “normal”
bandwidth over a carrier frequency
that rapidly changes within a wider
frequency spectrum.
To decode the signal, thereceiver in
the FH-SS system needs to know the
frequency-hopping sequence –
the“code.”

FH-SS was first developed by scientist


Nicola Tesla around 1900

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SPREAD SPECTRUM SYSTEM
II. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS-SS)

It is SS principle wherein
the carrier frequency
stays the same, but
instead the signal to be
transmitted is multiplied
with a high bandwidth
signal.

On the receiving end, the


reproducible high
bandwidth signal – the
“code” – is multiplied
with the received signal
to recover the original
signal.

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SPREADIND AND DESPREADING
1
Tx Bit Stream
-1
Spreading X
1
Code Chip Stream
(Spreading Code) -1

Spread Air Interface


Chip Stream
Despreading X
Code Chip Stream
(Spreading Code)

Rx Bit Stream

U101 42
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42 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
What is CHIP?
It is a pulse of a direct-sequence spread
spectrum (DSSS) Code

-1

pseudo-noise code sequence

WCDMA CHIP RATE: 3.84 Mcps

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43 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
WCDMA Architecture
RNS: Radio Network Subsystem CN: Core Network
UE: User IuCS
Equipment cell cell cell
ME Node B E
RNC MSC E
USIM

B G-MSC
VLR D PSTN
F C
cell cell cell

ME Iur
Node B

EIR HLR AuC


FDD mode
USIM

only Gs Gf G
c
Gr
GGSN
cell cell cell
Node B

ME RNC: Radio Gi
Network SGSN Gn
Controller
USIM

Gp
Iub RNS IuPS
Uu Iu
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WCDMA - GSM Architecture

Interface
A-bis

Interface
Iub

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UTRAN (Universal Terrestrial Radio
Access Network) Structure

CN

Iu Iu

RNS RNS
Iur
RNC RNC

Iub Iub Iub Iub

NodeB NodeB NodeB NodeB

UTRAN Uu
UTRAN
UE

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46 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
WCDMA Architecture

The system consists of:


• UTRAN
UTRAN performs all the functions related to wireless
communication;
• CN (Core Network)
CN switches and routes voice and data services to
connect them to the external network.
• UE (User Equipment)
The UE (User Equipment) is connected to the UTRAN
through the air interface standard.

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47 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Functional Units

UE (User Equipment):
As the wireless terminal that performs wireless communication
via the Uu interface, it contains an intelligent card, which records the
user ID, performs the authentication algorithm, and stores
information such as authentication information and keys.
Node B:
Transmits data streams between the Iub and the Uu interfaces,
participating in radio resource management.
RNC (Radio Network Controller):
Owns and controls the radio resources under its administration.
The RNC is the service access point provided by the UTRAN for the
CN.

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48 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
INTERFACE

Uu interface:
Serves as the air interface of the WCDMA system to connect
a UE to a Node B.
Iu interface:
Connects the UTRAN and the CN. It is similar to the A
interface (circuit switching) and the Gb interface (packet switching)
in GSM.
Iur interface:
Allows soft handover between the RNC equipment of different
manufacturers as an open interface.
Iub interface:
Connects the Node B and the RNC.

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WCDMA Basic Nature and Behavior - Cell Breathing
Breath effect of cell
• With the increase of activated
terminals, interference increase
• the increase of high speed service,
the increase of interference
• The shrink of cell coverage area
• Coverage blind spot occurs
• Drop of call will happen at the edge of cell

Coverage and
capacity are
relative

back
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50 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Coverage/capacity vs Data Rate

Higher rate needs higher power


High data rate transmission is only available nearby the station

>384 kbps
Coverage decrease

>144 kbps
>64 kbps

Subscriber
num >12.2 kbps
increase

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Multipath Propagation

Transmit

Strength

Received Signal

0 Time

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Multipath Propagation

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RAKE Receiving

Single
receiving
Single
receiving combining signal
receiver
Single
receiving

searcher calculate
s(t) s(t)

t t

RAKE improve receive capability


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54 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
WCDMA Behavior: HANDOVER
Use handoff: minimize drop-call rate

s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s

Handover is the process of shifting a mobile


device’s connection from one Node B to another
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TYPES OF HANDOVER
I. Intra-System (WCDMA) Handover
a. SOFTER HANDOVER Mobie Station handover
within one node B between different sectors –
b. SOFT HANDOVER - Mobile Station handover
between different Node B.
c. Hard HANDOVER - Mobile Station handover
between different frequencies

II. Inter-System Handover


Handover between WCDMA <--> GSM (Hard)
Handover between WCDMA/FDD <--> TDD
(Hard)

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WCDMA Power Control
Why need Power Control?
- All User Equipment transmit on the same frequency
- UE with low path loss will cause large interference
- Removes Near –Far Effect – Variation of power level and
interference due to distance and fading

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WCDMA Power Control

•Goal: Adjust transmit power so that all mobile terminals


are received with approximately the same power
•Set PTX,1 and PTX,2 so that PRX,1 ~ PRX,2

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WCDMA Power Control
Open loop power control (No feed Back from the Node B)
To provide a course initial power setting of the mobile station at
the beginning of a connection.
If received signal is weaker,then UE can transmit stronger
If received signal is stronger,then UE can transmit lower
Closed Loop - With feed back from the Node B. Base station informs
mobile unit to increase or decrease the power level

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