Baidya Nath Pandey Roll No.

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Brief History of Registry
• MS-DOS got its configuration data from Config.sys and Autoexec.bat. The primary purpose of Config.sys was to load device drivers, and the primary purpose of Autoexec.bat was to run programs, set environment variables, and more, to prepare MS-DOS for use. • Every application that ran on MS-DOS was responsible for managing its own settings. • But Neither of these configuration files is useful in Windows.

• Windows 3.0 alleviated the limitations of Autoexec.bat and Config.sys by providing INI (initialization) files for storing settings. • INI files, are text files that contain one or more sections with one or more settings in each section. • The main problems with INI files:-Provide no hierarchy -Storing binary values are cumbersome -No standard for storing similar types of settings.

• Major problem with early versions:Windows had the number of INI files that floated around on the average computer. • Every application had its own INI files. • All the configuration file’s inability to build complex relationships b/n applications and the operating system.

• Windows 3.1 introduced the registry as a tool for storing OLE (object linking and embedding) settings, and Windows 95 and Microsoft Windows NT 3.5 expanded the registry into the configuration database that Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 use now. • Even though INI files are no longer necessary because applications now have a far better way to store settings, you’ll always find a handful of INI files, including Win.ini, on any computer.

What is Registry?
• Windows stores its configuration information in a database called the registry. • The registry contains profiles for each user of the computer and information about system hardware, installed programs, and property settings. Windows continually references this information during its operation.

Contd…
• The registry is a hierarchical database, which can be described as a central repository for configuration data (Microsoft’s terminology) or as a configuration database. • You can do nothing in Windows that doesn’t access the registry.

HIEARCHICAL VIEW OF THE REGISTRY
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The registry is a hierarchical database that contains most Windows settings.

Actual view of Registry in Window

Classification of the registry:•The registry is divided into six broad sections, one for each root Key. These are as follows:•HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT •HKEY_CURRENT_USER •HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE •HKEY_USERS •HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG •HKEY_DYN_DATA

HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
• It is mainly used to keep track of file extensions and their associated applications, documents and OLE objects.

HKEY_CURRENT_USER • This root key contains information specific to the user. If user profiles are enabled, it relates to the user who is currently logged on.

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
• It is the home of all the computerspecific information, including details of the hardware configuration and any machine-specific settings for the installed applications.

HKEY_USERS
• This root key contains a sub-key for each user profile. There is a further sub-key, named .Default, which provides default values for new user profiles. If user profiles are not enabled, .Default stores the settings for the actual user.

HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG
• The HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG root key is an alias for the current hardware profile. Its content is therefore identical to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Config\nnnn , where nnnn is the profile number.

HKEY_DYN_DATA
• This final root key (which is not present in NT) is a memory-resident copy of certain other registry items. It contains information which Windows needs to retrieve particularly quickly.

Working
• With every click, Windows consults the registry. Every time launch a program, the operating system consults the registry. Every application that we use looks for its settings in the registry. • The registry is certainly the center of attention. • Due to this, the registry is “the operating system’s heart and soul.”

• For example, when you right-click different types of files, you see different shortcut menus. Settings in the registry make this type of context-sensitive user interface possible. • The settings for each user who logs on to Windows are separate from those of other users—again, because of the registry. • The ability of Windows to use different configurations for laptop computers depending on whether they’re docked or undocked is due in large part to the registry. Even Plug and Play depends on the registry.

High Level Overview
• Logical: – Registry = “a FS within a file” – Keys = directories – Values = files • Physical: – Registry=collection of Hives – Hive = collection of Bins – Bin = collection of Cells – Cell = unit of allocation (contains raw data)

Advantage of Registry
• The biggest advantage of the registry is more exciting and very real: you can customize Windows and the applications that run on it in ways that aren’t otherwise possible. Windows has thousands of settings that you’ll never see in any dialog box, but that you might want to customize. • For example, you can redirect your Favorites folder to a different location, improve your Internet connection’s performance, and add commands to any type of file’s shortcut menu.

Globally unique identifiers
• Globally unique identifiers are better known as GUIDs (pronounced goo ids). They are numbers that uniquely identify objects such as computers, program components, and devices. • These objects often have names, but their GUIDs remain unique even if two of the objects have the same name or if their names change.

Structure of GUIDs
• All GUIDs have the same interesting format. They’re 16-byte hexadecimal numbers in groups of 8, 4, 4, 4, and 12 digits (0 through 9 and A through F). • A dash divides each group of digits, and curly brackets enclose the whole number. • An example of a real GUID is {645FF040-5081101B-9F08-00AA002F954E}, which represents the Recycle Bin object that you see on the desktop. • The GUID {127A89AD-C4E3-D411-BDC8001083FDCE08} belongs to my computer.

Dword (doubleword variable)

Just for Fun……
• Pop up banner when windows boots • Create your own tips. • Add a command prompt right click to every folder. • Disable the shutdown option

How we edit the registry?
• Tools used are: -Microsoft regedit.exe
-Third party registry editors Registry commander Regeditx Registry workshop

How do we see the registry?
• For the security purpose microsoft has hidden the direct view of the registry because it makes possible the failure of windows to work or misbehave to users. • The registry application is seen in c:\windows\system32 and its editor can be accessed from c:\windows.

Remember !
• Editing the registry is not as tough as you might think, but you need to understand what you’re doing, and it’s essential to make a backup before you make any changes so that you can back them out if necessary.

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