“ At the end of the day, the technologies are the means to the end, not the end in itself

Zero Configuration Networking
Presented by,

Vijay

Overview
• What is Ze ro C onf igu ra tio n Ne twor ki ng ? • De scr ip ti on of Pr ot oc ol s
– Origin: IETF – IP Address Auto configuration – Name Resolution Without DNS – Service Discovery

• Avai lab le I mpl em ent at ion • Supp or t • Con cl usi on

Zero Config ur at io n Net wo rking
• The goal of the Zero Configuration Networking (ZER OC ON F) Working Group is to enable networking in the absence of configuration and administration • “ Ze roc on f ” is an umbrella term for a number of underlying technologies which used to deploy Automatic Configuration.

Orig ins : IE TF
• Stuart Cheshire posted on the Net-Thinkers mailing list in 1997 • Put forward before IETF meetings on the subject of "Networking in the Small" (NITS). • Zero Configuration Working Group was established in September 1999. • In May 2002, Apple announced its trademark "Ren dez vou s” for the Zeroconf technologies. • April 2005, Apple announced the new Apple name for the Zeroconf technologies: "Bon jou r."

Des crip tio n of Pro to cols
The Zeroconf technology, • IP Address Auto Configuration (Addressing without DHCP) • Multicast DNS (Name resolution without DNS) • Service Discovery

IP Addre ss Aut o co nfig ura tio n
• Absence of DHCP Server: – Automatic selection of an IP address in the absence
of a DHCP server or network administrator

• Selection of addresses is done in a distributed manner ie Each device is responsible for choosing its own address and then verifying that it can use the selected address.

Assigning an IP address manually

Manually configuring IP printing

Li nk -local Add re ss ing
• Automatic self-assigned link-local addresses, which are guaranteed to work even when everything else has failed, providing the solution. • Link-local addressing is intended for two main scenarios:

– For tiny ad-hoc local networks where communication is desired without the overhead of setting up a DHCP server – To provide a minimum safety-net level of service on networks where there's supposed to be a DHCP server but it's failed.

Link-local addressing…
• Link-local address range:
• • • •

– Some of the IP addresses listed in RFC 3330 as being reserved for local private use are:
10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 169.254.0.0 to 169. 254.255.255

• Last set of numbers is the range that Zeroconf uses when no DHCP server is available.

Link-local Addressing…
• Claiming a Link-Local IP Address (Probing)
– The address is selected randomly until you test that no one else on the network is already using it. – Probing for address availability (Address Resolution Protocol )

Link-local Addressing…
169.254.1.219

Printer
169.254.10.29

Network

169.254.4.52 169.254.4.51

Name Res olutio n With out DN S
• Absence of DNS Server, • Multicast DNS
– Perform DNS queries via IP Multicast

– Does not require any changes to the DNS Protocol (messages, resource record types, etc). – Resolve locally unique hostnames. – ‘Answer list’ in Multicast-DNS will have details of the mDNS Querier and Responder, and other mechanics of where the messages are being sent and which devices are listening.

Mu ltica st DNS
• Multicast DNS Queries
– Set the destination address to 224.0.0.251 (IPv4 address that has been reserved for mDNS), set the destination port to 5353, and send the UDP packet as usual. When the UDP response comes back, the DNS client receives and handles it. – When a machine receives a response to a query, other machines on the network receive the response too and can add it to their own caches for future use.

Multicast DNS…
• Claiming Your Local Name
– Probing to Check for Uniqueness done after a hostname is chosen for a particular device. – .local is used in Mac OS, Windows and Linux to identify a name as being link-local.

Multicast DNS…
– Check for Conflicts – If no conflicting Multicast DNS response is received, then – a second query is sent 250 ms after the first and, in the absence of conflicts, – a third query is sent 250 ms after that. – After waiting an additional 250 ms, (total of 750 ms for the three queries), if no conflicting Multicast DNS response has been received, then the host has successfully verified uniqueness.

Multicast DNS…
• Create a Multicast DNS Address Record
– Host has a Unique name and an IP address selected or assigned. – Next step is to create a local Multicast DNS address record that will maps the name to the IP address.

• Device have a mechanism to display an error message, to prompt a human user from manually select another name.

Multicast DNS…
PC_Bill 169.254.1.219

Printer
169.254.10.29 lj21569478

Network

Mac_Steve PC_Larry 169.254.4.51 169.254.4.52

Multicast DNS…
• Structure of the Multicast DNS Message
– Multicast DNS Message format is similar to that of Unicast DNS Message format. – In fact, software can decode and display mDNS packets using the same decoder as uDNS packets. – uDNS packets are limited to, at most, 512 bytes. mDNS packets are allowed to be up to 9,000 bytes. – mDNS uses UDP port 5353 instead of port 53. – mDNS uses UTF-8, and only UTF-8, to encode resource record names. uDNS, use variety of encodes for a compatibility reasons.

• Minor differences:

Se rvice Dis co very
• DNS Service Discovery (DNS-SD), the mechanism in Zeroconf that discover what services are available on the network without having to know device or service names in advance. • Finding Services, Not Devices • Client software store the chosen service name, type, and domain, instead of resolving the named service to an IP address and storing that.

Ava il able Impleme nta tio n
Benjour

• BENJOUR is Apple Computer’s implementation of Zeroconf in its. • Introduced in Mac OS X 10 .2 (“J aguar ”) operating systems.

App li cat io ns
• iTunes which uses service discovery to find music available on the local network. • iChat instant messaging

Supp ort
• General purpose operating systems now running the Zeroconf protocols. • Major vendors have announced support for Zeroconf in their products. It including Apple, Epson, HP, Lexmark, Philips, Canon… • Many dedicated hardware devices now implement it to advertise the services they provide.
– networked printer – laptop, desktop computer, digital camera… – iTunes/iPod

When & Where …
• Zeroconf is not appropriate
– Large networks or in Large public access networks. – Networks where a high degree of security and control is required – Networks with low bandwidth and high latency – Home and small office networks, LAN. – Ad hoc networks at meetings and conferences (especially wireless networks) – Two devices needing to spontaneously share or exchange information

• Zeroconf is appropriate

Conclu sio n
• Zero configuration networking is all about , providing real plug and play usability for applications and devices. • Networked applications can provide a friendly networking experience to the user. • Reducing support costs and increasing customer satisfactions. • It is platform independent.

REFERANCE Books • Zero Configuration Networking:
– The Definitive Guide By Stuart Cheshire, Daniel H. Steinberg

• Zero Configuration Networking:
– Novel Interactions Ltd.

Journal • Internet protocol journal 2007 Sites • http://developer.apple.com/networking/bonj our/ • http://www.apple.com/macosx/features/bonj our/ • http://www.zeroconf.org/ (IETF site)