This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
y As a production management tool . lean is centered on preserving value with less work. in zero time. and with nothing left in inventory. and thus a target for elimination. y Working from the perspective of the customer who consumes a product or service. is a production practice that considers the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful. production theory describes a system that deliver s a finished product free from defects to a customer. y Basically. "value" is defined as any action or process that a customer would be willing to pay for.y Lean manufacturing or lean production. .
y Lean manufacturing is a management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) . Eliminate or reduce all activities that do not add value to the final product. developed lean production theory. an engineer working for Toyota.y Moreover .it can be summarized into three main points: 1. . Reduce variability by controlling uncertainties within the process.Taiici Ohno. Pull material through the process 3. y It is renowned for its focus on reduction of the original Toyota seven wastes to improve overall customer value. 2. but there are varying perspectives on how this is best achieved.
Build continuous improvement into the process. Reduce variability. Benchmark.y primary goal of lean production theory is to reduce or eliminate the share of flow activities in a project while increasing the efficiency of conversion activities. Reduce cycle times. Focus control on the overall process. . Reduce the share of non value-adding activities. or linkages. Increase output flexibility. Simplify by minimizing the number of steps. Increase process transparency. parts. Balance flow improvement with conversion improvement. Increase output value through a systematic consideration of customer requirements. The following list outlines key principles of lean production .
y The procedure starts with identifying objectives. . The number of people needed to run each cell is then determined. The next step is to use ergonomic tools to evaluate the proposed cells to ensure safe work environment. The simulation results will be used to identify down time factors and constraints that reduce productivity. This process is continued until desired results are achieved. Possible solutions to reduce down time are then discussed and implemented. The next step is to develop a value stream mapping to identify material and information of the current and future states. Simulation modeling is then used to evaluate the performance of the proposed manufacturing cells. Objectives y y y y are then documented and studied in details.
start Set objective and identify constraints Develop value stream mapping yes Determine manpower required to run the cells Ergonomic evaluation Accepted Cell evaluation using simulation Achieved objective yes implementation no .
Setup and change over time . longer material handling. The over all objective is to re-arrange the current production system into manufacturing cells to overcome these limitations. less labor productivity. More scrap. large work-in-process and long setup and change over time. 1. lower quality.y Objectives The current production system has several limitations including ergonomic. Quality 3. Traceability and accountability 4. more floor space. Ergonomic 2.
. A VSM is usually achieved in two states. and the ergonomic constraints. The measures used at this stage are the balance time between the operator and the machine. The current VSM is used as a base line to identify activities that required achieving the future state or manufacturing cells. The balance time refers to the difference between the machine cycle time and the labor cycle time requires to load and unload all machines in the cell. Determine the manpower The manpower required to run each manufacturing cell is determined at this stage.y Value stream mapping The value stream mapping (VSM) one of the VMOS tools used to identify material and information of manufacturing processes. current state and future state.
The Energy Expenditure and NOISH Composite Lifting Index tools are used to evaluate each layout and ensure safe work environment. Simul8 is a simulation software that allows the user to create a simulation using elements that represent machines. It is powerful simulation software that is remarkably easy to use and understand. buffers and parts. . conveyors. Each manufacturing system is simulated using Simul8 simulation software. ergonomic principles are implemented to fitting jobs to people.y Ergonomic evaluation At this stage. Cell evaluation The simulation technique is used at this stage to evaluate the performance of the proposed manufacturing cells required to run each manufacturing cell.
y It also allows for a better understanding of the system being studied and to perform different scenarios. It is powerful simulation software that is remarkably easy to use and understand. It also improves the utilization of technology by determining the throughput and manpower required to run each manufacturing cell.y Simulation is an extremely powerful tool that allows for a preview of how things will run in the real word. . conveyors. Simul8 is a simulation software that allows the user to create a simulation using elements that represent machines. y The simulation model allows possible changes to the system before actually implemented. and preview of the possibility of failures. y Each manufacturing system is simulated using Simul8 simulation software. thus allowing for a decrease in cost. risk reduction. buffers and parts.
.The following are the assumptions used in the model: It is assumed that there are 8 hours per shift. 3 shifts per day and 5 days per week. There is 20 min lunch per shift The Exponential Probability Distribution is adopted for the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Erlang Distribution is adopted for the Mean Time To Repair (MTTR). There are two breaks per shift and each break has 12 min.
y Mean time between failure (MTBF). This factor involves the time required to changeover the cell. The manufacturing cell produces several parts. This factor refers to the time requires to fix the work-center after any failure. . which require different setup. This factor refers to the time a work center is expected to work without failing. y Machine cycle time. y Changeover and setup time.The input parameters used in the model are the machine cycle time. This factor refers to the time spent by a part at a certain operation. It includes the loading and unloading time and machine cycle time. MTBF and MTTR and change over and setup time. y Mean time to repair (MTTR).
increased rate of return on investment. improved quality. y So far. very few simulation models have been developed to evaluate the performance of cellular manufacturing systems . increased profit. reduced material handling cost and reduced space requirements . overdue orders and work inprocess inventories. decreased setup time.y Cellular Manufacturing (CM) system is an application of lean manufacturing aims to partition manufacturing systems into manufacturing cells . y Studies have shown that manufacturing companies that implemented CM systems improved their productivity level by increased output.
. and 30% decrees in scrap over the existing traditional manufacturing system. the parts to be produced. That is 49% increase per operator per shift over the traditional manufacturing system. The results showed that the current manufacturing cell had a productivity rate of 233 pcs/shift/man. This data included the machine layout for the current manufacturing system and proposed manufacturing cells. The cellular arrangement showed 35% decrease in labor. Both manufacturing systems are simulated and the model . the machine cycle and setup times.Before the model could be constructed.was run for 40 hours. data was needed. Data is then analyzed and the model is constructed. and production volumes. and the proposed lean manufacturing showed a productivity rate of 349 pcs/shift/man.
Simulation results Manufacturing system Machine efficiency (%) Labor productivity Labour utilization (Pcs/Shift/Man) Traditional Cellular 95 95.3 233 349 64 84.4 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.