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A computer system used in cricket, tennis,

snookers and other sports to visually track the
path of the ball and display a record of its most
statistically likely path as a moving image.

Hawk-Eye is one of the the most innovative

technology provider in sports broadcasting.
weveloped by engineers at
Roke Manor Research
Limited in 2001; the patent
being held by Paul Hawkins
and wavid Sherry.

Later, the technology was

spun off into a separate
company, Hawk-Eye
Innovations Ltd., as a joint
venture with television
production company Sunset
+ Vine.
à — -eye c n tr c ny type of bounce,
spin, sing nd se m movement of the b ll.

à Give prediction s ccur te s 99.99


à — -Eye is being used for referring

decisions to the third umpire in c se of
LBWs etc.

A Hawk-Eye system is based on the principle

of µTriangulationµ

6riangulation is the process of determining the location

of a point by measuring angles to it from known points
at either end of a fixed baseline.

½Õalibration of the cameras refers to dealing with the non-
uniform distance of the cameras from the playing area.

½After Õalibration is done and the system is up and running, we

start processing the video input which we get from the
cameras.It involves finding the balls in the images and then
using a geometric algorithm to look at multiple 2D images and
then cleverly combining them to get co-ordinates of ball in 3D

½This process is repeated at a rate of 100 times per

second.Thus, we have the position of the ball in 3D space at
many moments in every second.

½The final step is to process these multiple positions and find a

suitable fitting curve which best describes the flight
of the ball. As we have sampled the positions of the ball at very
short time intervals, the flight of the ball can be very
accurately determined.
Õ Õ   
6he Cameras: Typically, for a
cricket field, 6 cameras are used.
Placed around the field at roughly
60 from each other to cover the
entire field.
They may be used in the active or
passive mode.
Passive can be triggered into
active by manual external
triggering or by detecting some
motion in the vicinity of pitch.
All cameras go into active mode
simultaneously as they are
synchronised and remain in the
active mode for some given time.
Core Image Processing:

6his part of the system can be further divided

into 3 major parts:

(1) Identifying pixels representing the ball in each

image which is done by blob detection scheme
which is used to detect round objects in the

(2) Applying some geometric algorithm on the set

of images at each instant.

(3) Coming up with the 3w position of the ball in

The data and co-ordinates from each camera is obtained by the
Geometric Algorithm which is at work inside the HAWKEYE

The image taken from each camera is just a 2D image and lacks

Now, knowing the exact positions of the cameras in space (with

respect to the pitch) and the co-ordinates of the ball in more
than one of the images taken by these cameras, one can
determine accurately the position of the ball in 3D.
jet us consider the simple
case in which we assume
the cameras to be
mounted at ground level,
positioned with their
vision parallel to the

We wish to get
information about the 3D
position of the ball from
the positions and obtained
by resolving the ball from
2D images from Õameras 1
and 2 shown in the image
below. The ball is actually
at the position shown by
the red circle, at some
height above ground.
è The view in the cameras
will look something like
the one shown below.
The view below shows
the picture as seen by
Õamera 2 in the figure

è In this simplistic scenario,

the height of the ball above
the ground is given directly
by the co-ordinate in the
images.The other factor
that we need to find to get
the 3D view is the depth.
Bad Decisions=Turning Point..


The singles, 2s, 3s, 4s and 6s that make up quick-fire 50s

or vital centuries are represented by the different
colours of the Wagon Wheel, which shows the areas of
the field that the batsman has been targeting.

Hawk-Eye now has the ability to display wagon wheels

over photo realistic or virtual realistic backgrounds,
giving broadcasters even more scope to taylor the Hawk-
Eye 'look' towards the style of their production.

Hawk-Eye DeSpin Graphics

demonstrate how far a
delivery has deviated after
pitching. Whilst the blue
trajectory below represents
a ball that does not spin or
seam, the red ¶actual delivery·
shows just how much turn the
spinner has achieved.
Simple yet effective;
Pitch Maps make a useful
pause for reflection
after the frenetic
exchanges of the opening
overs and highlight a
bowler·s consistency or
expensiveness, line and

Hawk-Eye can now

display comparative Pitch
Maps in a split screen
format, as shown in the
example in the next
Beehives show where
the ball has passed
the batsman.As with
the Pitch Map, the
coloured balls
correspond to the
number of runs that
the batsman has
achieved from that
delivery. Hawk-Eye
Beehives can now be
shown against a photo
realistic or virtual
realistic world, as with
the Wagon Wheel
6he ¶RailCam· (side
view) shot of the VR
World can be used to
represent differences
in speed, bounce and
delivery. 6he
trajectories are
animated, whilst the
speeds provide further
evidence of a bowler·s
variation or a telling
comparison between
Hawk-Eye now has the
ability to supply ball
speeds as reliably as a
radar gun, as
demonstrated during
the ICC World
6wenty20 in South
A Hawk-Eye Reaction
6ime is a simple yet
valuable tool for
demonstrating how
quickly a particular
bowler is pitching. 6he
graphic can also be
applied to a catch,
thus quantifying a
spectacular replay or
slow-motion shot.
è We have looked at various aspects of the HAWKEYE technology.

è We looked into the details of each step of the process which

finally gives us the wonderful looking graphics that we see on TV
during cricket analysis shows.

è We have thus seen that ECESSI6 IS 6HE MO6HER OF

ALL IVE6IOS and HAWKEYE is a great innovation, which
puts technology to good use in the field of sports. The
technology is being used widely these days, in sports such as
Tennis and Õricket and maybe in Football too in the near future.
è 1) Video Processor Systems for Ball Tracking in Ball
Games. International Patent, publishing number WO
01/41884 A1
è 2)
è 3)
è 4)
è 5)
è 6)