NS100

Gyro and Magnetic Compass

Objectives:
1. Discuss gyrocompass theory and shipboard application. 2. Describe the differences and relationships of true bearings, relative bearings and ³per gyro compass´ (PGC) bearings. 3. Discuss and describe gyro error and the methods used to determine gyro error. 4. Demonstrate how to determine and correct for gyro error.

Objectives:
5. Describe the purpose and operation of the magnetic compass. 6. Discuss magnetic theory and application. 7. Define, identify, and solve for variation, deviation, compass error, magnetic bearings and true bearings.

Gyro Compass Theory
‡North-seeking gyroscope ‡two gimbals Electronically Stabilized

Gyroscope

Gyro Compass Theory
‡North-seeking Gyroscope Gyroscopic Inertia Gravity Precession

Gyro Applications
Shipboard Use - two gyros placed deep in the ship on the centerline. Primary- (Master gyro) oriented to north/south, used for navigation & shiphandling. Auxiliary- (Back up gyro) oriented east/west, used for combat systems.

Gyro Applications
Bridge - gyro repeaters are located on the bridge wings, navigation table, captain¶s chair & center line which is referred to as ³centerline pelorus.´ CIC - Command and Control System.

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Weapons - gyro inputs (i.e.. pitch/roll), are used by fire control computers

Gyro repeater

Gyro Error in Navigation
A gyro compass is an electronic/mechanical device with inherent error«. the key is knowing the error and adjusting for it Causes of Error ‡ Friction ‡ Ship¶s Motion ‡ Electronic Malfunctions ‡ Power Fluctuations.

Gyro Error in Navigation
Determination of Error ‡ Visual Range ( The most accurate). ‡ Adjusting Three LOP¶s (triangulation). Used before getting underway. ‡ Comparing a ³PGC´ bearing with a known true bearing. ‡ Celestial Azimuths and Amplitudes. ‡ Comparison with a Gyro of known error.

A 5º westerly error
VA

VA bears 090ºT. With reference to the Gyro compass it would bear 90º+5º=95º pgc

A 5º Easterly error
VA

VA bears 090ºT.
With reference to the Gyro compass it would bear 90º-5º=85º pgc

Gyro error
Gyro Error - is the difference between the gyro reading and the true bearing. We can have a West or East Gyro error. If Gyro is Least, Error is East If Gyro is Best, Error is West Gyro bearing +Easterly Error =True bearing

Gyro error
If you are on a range o bearing 089 T and the centerline pelorus reads o 090 pgc,what is the gyro error?  

Gyro = 090o and True = 089o,
Gyro = Best Error = West
o o o 



090 - 089 = 1 o Answer: 1 Westerly Error

Summary 

pgc (per gyro compass)
Gyro error diff. True and Gyro norths

Gyro Failure
In the event of gyro failure LOP¶s are taken in relative bearings. The magnetic compass can be used to know your ship¶s head. Rel. Bearing+Mag. Ship¶s Head=Mag. Bearing Then the magnetic heading can be converted to true bearing.

The variation information is contained in the compass rose closest to the ship¶s DR position

True Bearing = Magnetic Bearing + Variation (add East Variation or subtract West Variation)

Summary 

pgc (per gyro compass) Gyro error diff. True and Gyro norths  M (magnetic) Variation diff. True and Magnetic norths

Deviation
Ship¶s Magnetic Field

Deviation
Degaussing

Compass Deviation table

Magnetic Compass Error
Deviation + Variation = Compass Error If observed bearing is Least, Error is East. If observed bearing is Best, Error is West. Example: Deviation is 2o West & Variation is 13o East, what is compass error? Answer: 13o - 2o = 11o East Error

Applications of Compass Error
Scenario: The USS Boxer just lost it¶s gyro compass while steering 125o T. The conning officer needs to give a magnetic compass course. What course do you recommend? Given: Variation is 8o West from the compass rose on the chart, annual increase was added to the variation. Deviation is 2.5o East from the ship¶s compass card for course 133o M.

Applications of Compass Error 
Truly  Valiant  Marines  on¶t  Cry @ Weddings

True Course Variation Mag. Mer. Deviation Compass Add West

Applications of Compass Error 
T = 125o T  V = 8o West  M = 125 + 8 = 133  D = 2.5o East  C = 133 + (- 2.5)

Ans = 130.5 pstgc

o

Summary 

pgc (per gyro compass)
Gyro error diff. True and Gyro norths 

M (magnetic)
Variation diff. True and Magnetic norths 

pstgc

(per steering compass)

Deviation  diff. Mag and steering compass norths

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