Power Train Components

Introduction
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Reduction Gears - fast to slow Lubrication System - overcome friction Shaft components - turbines to the working medium (ocean) Propeller - transform rotational energy into thrust

Reduction Gears
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Purposes
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Allow turbine and propeller to operate at most efficient speeds Combine two turbines to common shaft

Reduction Gears
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Gear Types
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Straight
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excessive vibration low power-transfer ability Reduces vibration, quieter Higher power transfer ability Excessive axial thrust Two sets of teeth cut at opposite angles Eliminates axial thrust

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Helical
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Double Helical
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Reduction Gears
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Reduction Process
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Pinion (small) gear drives reduction (large) gear Reduction ratio = turns of pinion : turns of reduction gear Double-reduction Double-reduction: reduction in 2 steps (more compact design) For naval reduction gears, normally 30:1

Reduction Gears
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Locked Train
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Two sets of gears and shafts Torque transmitted equally Increases ability to transmit torque using smaller components

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Turbine shafts connected to reduction gears by flexible couplings to allow for thermal expansion

Shaft Turning/Jacking Gear
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Electric motor that rotates reduction gears, turbines, and shaft w/o using steam
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Cool down turbines after operation Prior to startup for even heating Position for maintenance

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Can be used to lock shaft in place
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In event of casualty (i.e., loss of lube oil)

Shaft Bearings
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Designed to support the moving parts of:
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Shaft Turbines Absorb axial forces Ex: Kingsbury Thrust bearing Absorb radial forces

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Thrust bearings
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Radial (Journal) bearings
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Lube Oil System
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Provide lubrication and remove heat generated by bearings in overcoming friction Major components:
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Sump Pump Strainer Cooler Bearings

Cooler SW Moving Parts Strainer Pump Sump

Lube Oil System
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Lube oil can be kept in service for a long time if kept pure (two methods) Batch Purification
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In-port only Uses heated settling tank At-sea method Centrifugal purifier separates oil & contaminants

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Continuous Purification
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Propulsion Shaft
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Shaft is hollow: reduces weight & increases resiliency Consists of four sections
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Thrust shaft - from thrust bearing in reduction gears to end of engineroom Line shaft - located in shaft alley (supported by line shaft bearings) Stern shaft - part of shaft which penetrates hull (supported by Stern Tube bearings) Propeller shaft - shaft connected to propeller (supported by Strut Bearings)

Propulsion Shaft
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Different sections needed for easy installation, removal, & maintenance

Propeller
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Made of hub and blades & creates the thrust necessary to propel the ship through the water
Terms:
Pitch: axial distance advanced during one complete revolution of screw ²Face: the pressure side ²Back: the suction side
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Propeller Types
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Constant vs. Variable Pitch
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Variable has the twisted look Adv: more efficient over wide range of speeds In controllable, blades can rotate on hub to change pitch (change direction) Viewed from aft of ship Twin-screw ships have one of each

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Fixed vs. Controllable Pitch
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Right vs. Left Hand Screw
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Propeller
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Cavitation
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Formation and subsequent collapse of bubbles as propeller turns Occurs at critical speed High level of underwater noise Erosion of blades Vibrabtion with subsequent blade failure from metallic fatigue Overall loss of propeller efficiency

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Effects
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Propeller Power vs. Shaft RPM
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Flow E RPM; Thrust (head) E RPM2; Power E RPM3 So, if 10% power yields 100 RPM, how much power will produce 200 RPM?
10% 1003 x% 2003 x = 10 * (200/100)3 = 80% power

Questions?