Presented By Bhaskar Jyoti Kashyap 1052/06

INTRODUCTION The Secure Hash Algorithm is one of a number of cryptographic hash functions published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology as a U. There are currently three generations of Secure Hash Algorithm: ‡ SHA-1 ‡ SHA-2 ‡ SHA-3 . Federal Information Processing Standard.S.

WHY SHA MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5) is a widely cryptographic hash function with a 128-bit hash value Various security issues with MD5 are: ‡ Collision vulnerabilities ‡ Preimage vulnerability ‡ Other vulnerabilities used .

usually for security or data management purposes. ‡ The "one way" means that it's nearly impossible to derive the original text from the string. . ‡ A one-way hash function is used to create digital signatures.ONE WAY HASH FUNCTION ‡ An algorithm that turns messages or text into a fixed string of digits. which in turn identify and authenticate the sender and message of a digitally distributed message.

Biham and Chen found near-collisions for SHA-0.SHA-0 Digest length:20 bytes Block size:64 bytes Maximum final block size: 55 bytes ‡ At CRYPTO 98. two French researchers presented an attack on SHA-0 collisions can be found with complexity 261. 142 out of the 160 bits are equal. . They also found full collisions of SHA-0 reduced to 62 out of its 80 rounds. two messages that hash to nearly the same value. fewer than the 280 for an ideal hash function of the same size ‡ In 2004. in this case.

this was done. SHA-1 is based on principles similar to those used by Ronald L. according to NSA. to correct a flaw in the original algorithm which reduced its cryptographic security . Rivest of MIT in the design of the MD4 and MD5 message digest algorithms.SHA-1 ‡ SHA-1 produces a 160-bit digest from a message with a maximum length of (264 1) bits. but has a more conservative design ‡ SHA-1 differs from SHA-0 only by a single bitwise rotation in the message schedule of its compression function.

SHA-1 compression function .

HMAC Generation ‡ adsf .

ATTACK ON SHA-1 ‡ We can exploit the following two weaknesses: ± the file preprocessing step is not complicated enough ± certain math operations in the first 20 rounds have unexpected security problems ‡ In early 2005. The attacks can find collisions in the full version of SHA-1. requiring fewer than 269 operations . Rijmen and Oswald published an attack on a reduced version of SHA-1: 53 out of 80 rounds which finds collisions with a computational effort of fewer than 280 operations ‡ In February 2005. an attack by Xiaoyun Wang was announced.

384 or 512 bits respectively ‡ Unlike SHA-1. Reasons might include lack of support for SHA-2 on systems running Windows XP SP2 or older . SHA-1. 256. SHA256. SHA-512) designed by the NSA ‡ SHA-2 includes a significant number of changes from its predecessor. SHA-2 consists of set of four hash functions with different digest sizes. with 224. the SHA-2 functions are not widely used.SHA-2 ‡ SHA-2 is a set of cryptographic hash functions (SHA-224. SHA-384. despite their better security.

.and 64-bit words. computed with different initial values of 18. They use different shift amounts and additive constants. respectively. ‡ SHA-224 and SHA-384 are simply truncated versions of the first two. respectivly. but their structures are otherwise virtually identical. differing only in the number of rounds.VERSIONS OF SHA-2 ‡ SHA-256 and SHA-512 are novel hash functions computed with 32.and 48bit words.

One iteration in a SHA-2 family compression function .

2007. which was formally announced in the Federal Register on November 2.SHA-3 ‡ The NIST hash function competition is an open competition held by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology for a new SHA-3 function to replace the older SHA-1 and SHA2. ‡ NIST is initiating an effort to develop one or more additional hash algorithms through a public competition .

Comparison of SHA functions .

.CONCLUSION ‡ SHA is an improved hashing algorithm over the message digest (MD5) ‡ The brute force attack is also not easy because it takes 2256 attempts to get the original message back in SHA-2.

heise Security ‡ Links ± Specifications for a Secure Hash Standard (SHS) ± NIST Cryptographic Hash Project .REFERENCES ‡ Schneier on Security: Cryptanalysis of SHA-1 ‡ Hash cracked .

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