GPRS/EDGE OVERVIEW

Course contents
‡ GPRS Background and Evolution ‡ GSM/GPRS network ‡ GPRS Architecture ‡ IP Addressing in GPRS ‡ GPRS Air Interfaces ‡ MS types and Coding Schemes ‡ Mobility Management ‡ PDP Context Activation Sequence ‡ GPRS Roaming ‡ GPRS Charging ‡ Practical Demonstration of GPRS

GPRS BACKGROUND AND EVOLUTION

GPRS BACK GROUND
‡ With Mobile penetration reaching its full potential, GPRS gives Mobile operators competitive edge and optimum use of the infrastructure. ‡SMS is a good example of just how hungry users are for data services. ‡ The main Objective of GPRS is to offer the access to standard data networks, using protocols e.g. TCP/IP and X.25 ‡ Transactions such as Credit Card checks and a variety of telemetric applications benefit from the fast session set-ups. ‡ GPRS enables efficient use of radio resources by allowing many data users to share the same interface on a statistical basis. ‡The main benefits of GPRS are that it reserves radio resources only when there is data to be sent ‡ Mobile users doesn¶t have to connect to the network each time he wants to transfer the data, he can stay connected all day.

Evolution from GSM to 3G The GSM Growth Phases
High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data 3G EDGE
GPRS 2.5G HSCSD GSM 2G

GSM Evolution
2G 2.5G 3G

GSM

GPRS

EDGE

UMTS

GSM 200 KHz carrier 8 full-rate time slots 16 half-rate time slots

GPRS 200 KHz carrier 115 Kbps peak data rates

EDGE 200 KHz carrier Data rates up to 384 Kbps 8-PSK modulation Higher symbol rate

UMTS 5 MHz carrier 2 Mbps peak data rates New IMT-2000 2 GHz spectrum

HSCSD HSCSD Circuit-switched data 64 Kbps peak data rates

MAIN ADVANTAGES FOR OPERATORS
‡ More Revenue : By providing more than a mobile connection. Also operator can charge on the basis of type and amount of content accessed. ‡ Huge Potential Market for Data Sevices : Mobile Phone and Internet, both are fastest growing technologies and GPRS is the merger of two. ‡ Fast Roll-out and Continuous Network Expansion : GPRS is an integral part of GSM. ‡ GPRS uses excess voice capacity for data : GPRS Packets are transmitted in short, free periods between busy hour calls.

Free GSM Capacity
GPRS packets can be transmitted in the short free periods between busy hour calls 2TRX = 14 Speech TS 2% blocking means 8 Erlang speech traffic  On average 6 TS free !
16 14 12 10 TCH 8 6 4
16 14 12 10 TC H 8 6 4 2 0 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:00

2 0 1:00 PM 1:15 PM 1:30 PM 1:45 PM

GPRS Vs GSM
GPRS 1. SUPPORTS BOTH CKT. SWITCHED as well as packet switched service. 2. MS Utilizes Automatic retransmission (ARQ) at data link layer to re-transmit error frames. 3. Multiple time slots can be allotted to a single user 4. One time slot can be allotted to several users. 5. Charging/ billing more complex (Volume based, Q.O.S. based) Vs GSM Only circuit switched.

No re-transmission is provided.

Single time slot per user. Single time slot per user. Simple time-based billing.

TYPICAL GPRS SERVICES
* Communications* Value added services E-mail, fax, intranet/ internet access. Information services, games, e-commerce.

* Location-based applications - Navigation, traffic conditions, airline/rail schedule, location finder. * Vertical applications * Location sensitive Advertising Freight delivery, fleet management, sales-force automation A user nearing a cinema hall or a restaurant receives flashes of advertisement

GPRS NETWORK ELEMENTS

GSM NETWORK ELEMENTS
The Main elements of GSM are: ‡ NSS :
‡MSC ‡VLR ‡HLR (Includes Authentication Center and Equipment Identity Register)

‡ BSS :
‡BSC ‡BTS ‡Transcoder

‡ NMS
‡Fault Management ‡Configuration Management ‡Performance Management

GPRS Network Elements
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Network Element Software SGSN SG1 GGSN G1 Firewall Checkpoint Ethernet Switch N/A DNS HP-UX 11.00 CG HP-UX 10.20 Border Gateway BGP4 DHCP HP-UX 11.00

Hardware DX Platform IP650 IP650 Cisco Catalyst HP 9000 A class HP K class IP650 HP 9000 A class

GPRS ARCHITECTURE

GPRS Interface
MSC/ VLR HLR EIR SMSGMSC
Signalling and data

Gs
SGSN BSC

Gr

Gf

Gd

Signalling

Gb

GGSN

Gn

Gi

External packet network

Air (Um)

Gn

GGSN

Gp

Inter-PLMN GPRS Backbone

SGSN Role
‡ Authentication, Authorization ‡ GTP tunneling to GGSN ‡ Ciphering & compression ‡ Mobility Management ‡ Session Management ‡ Interaction with HLR, MSC/VLR ‡ Charging & statistics ‡ NMS interfaces

GGSN Role
‡ Interface to external data networks ‡ Encapsulate in GTP and forwards end user data to right SGSN ‡ Routes mobile originated packets to right destination ‡ Filters end user traffic ‡ Collects charging and statistic information for data network usage

GPRS AIR INTERFACES

Different GPRS Capacity Types
Circuit Switched Territory Packet Switched Territory

TRX 1 CCCH TRX 2 TS

TS TS

TS TS

TS TS

TS TS

TS TS

TS TS TS

TS TS TS

Dedicated Additional GPRS GPRS GPRS Capacity Capacity Capacity

Territory border moves based on Circuit Switched traffic load

Common control channel

GPRS MS CLASS & CODING SCEMES

MS Class
‡ CLASS A: Supports simultaneous attach, simultaneous activation, simultaneous monitor, simultaneous invocation, and simultaneous traffic. ‡ CLASS B: Simultaneous traffic shall is not supported. The mobile user can make and/or receive calls on either of the two services sequentially but not simultaneously. The selection of the appropriate service is performed automatically ‡ CLASS C: Supports only non-simultaneous attach. Alternate use only.
‡

The status of the service which has not been selected is detached, that is, not reachable.

GPRS Channel Coding Schemes

GPRS MOBILITY MANAGEMENT

Mobility Management State
GPRS Attach / Detach

Idle

READY Timer Expiry Standby

Ready

STANDBY Timer Expiry

Packet TX/RX

MS location not known. Subscriber is not reachable by the GPRS NW.

MS location known to SGSN level. MS is capable of receiving Point-to-Multipoint data and being paged for Point-to-Point data

MS location known to cell level. MS is transmitting or has just been transmitting. MS is capable of receiving Point-to-Point data and Point-to-Multipoint data.

Routing Area

RAI = MCC+MNC+LAC+RAC

GPRS Mobility Management Routing Area :
The RA is a new concept for tracing the MS location. Cell =< RA =< LA served by one SGSN RAI = MCC + MNC + LAC + RAC Every time the MS sees the new RAI is has to initiate the RA update procedure.

GPRS Mobility Management Mobility Management States :
‡The IDLE State is when the MS is not connected. ‡The Standby State is when the MS is connected to the GPRS Network ‡The Ready State is when the MS is ready to connect to the external IP Network. Changing between states can be initiated from the MS, from the network and from the timers set.

PDP CONTEXT ACTIVATION

PDP Context Activation Accessing the HLR
‡
HLR BTS BSC

2.
SS7

(1) MS sends "Activate PDP Context Request" to SGSN ‡Access Point Name ‡PDP Type (IP) ‡PDP Address (empty == dynamic)

1.
APN= "Intranet.Ltd.com" SGSN

‡
DNS GPRS Backbone IP Network

Access Point
Intranet GGSN

(2) SGSN checks against HLR ‡Access Point Name ‡Dynamic / static IP address

Internet
‡ Access Point Name = Reference to an external packet data network the user wants to connect to

SECURITY IN GPRS
GPRS SYSTEM HAS INHERITED THE GSM PH-2 SECURITY FUNCTIONS ‡ Authentication of the subscriber ‡ IMEI Checking ‡ User Identity Confidentiality (TMSI in GSM, P-TMSI in GPRS) ‡ Ciphering of the data traffic between MS and SGSN

ADDITIONAL GPRS SECURITY FEATURES ARE ‡ Private IP Addressing in the GPRS backbone. ‡ Ciphered links and authentication between nodes in the GPRS Backbone. ‡ Screening of packets coming from the external networks (Firewall). (P-TMSI is used to derive the Temp Logical Link Identity (TLLI))

The Abbreviation
GPRS = General Packet Radio System

EGPRS = GPRS + EDGE modulation

EDGE ± Provide 3G services today
‡ Provide 3G services with existing licenses
‡ New modulation optimized for wireless data services ‡ Link adaptation: Take highest possible rate ‡ Covered by existing GSM licenses ‡ Same channel structure, network infrastructure, frequency planning and protocol as today¶s GSM

Evolution to EDGE
SMS G/IW MSC
Gd
M S

HLR

AUC

BTS

P U C

BSC
Gb

MSC/VLR
Gr Gs

ISP Network

M S

EDGE TRU

SGSN
Gn

GGSN
Gn

Gi

Backbone Network

Corporate Network

EDGE increases capacity
voice voice voice voice voice

Standard GSM Transceiver

voice

voice

voice

voice

voice

Free TS

Free TS

Data

EDGE Transceiver

System upgrade for EDGE
EDGE TRU

B S C

R B S

BSC Software Upgrade

EDGE enabled RBS

What EDGE would mean to subscribers
‡ Streaming Applications ‡ Very high speed downloads ‡ Corporate Intranet connections ‡ Quicker MMS ‡ Video Phone ‡ Vertical corporate applications ± Video Conference, Remote presentations

Thank You!

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