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September 18 2007
September 18 2007
• • • • • Review: Studying Politics Discussion: A Force More Powerful Human Nature Political Power Political regimes
Review: Political Science
• Empirical analysis - explaining various aspects of politics using the scientific method of observation and comparison to develop generalizations and theories • Normative Analysis: examining ideas about how societies should be governed • Policy Analysis: Evaluating existing policies and identifying what policies should be adopted to particular problems • Comparative Analysis: examining similarities and differences between political processes, structures and institutions in different political communities
Review: What is Politics
strugglesconflicting interests ‘art and science of government’authoritative allocation of values’ who gets what why and how?Harold Laswell art of the possible
• • • Governance is concerned with the organization of power to achieve collective ends. Simply put "governance" means: the process of political decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Governance in common usage is applied to nation-state:
– national governance; community: local governance; business: corporate governance; global: international governance.
Since governance is the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented, an analysis of governance focuses on processes that are:
– formal – informal
It also focuses on actors involved in decision-making and implementing the decisions made the formal and informal structures in place to arrive at and implement the decision.
Review: Politics and governance
• People govern themselves in a variety of ways.
– In some cases, as in Canada, people have various levels of governance and formal governments – federal, provincial, municipal, community, self-government. – In others, it is through kingdoms or fiefdoms. – There are also unitary and federal governmental arrangements
• All these institutions engage in a process of rule making • Rule making determines the conduct of life for the members of society and provides them with identity, belonging and a sense of purpose in life. • Informal processes of governance occur outside of the structures of government, such as those in what we call civil society, the social sector, in religious institutions.
Governance and policy making
a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem, issue or interrelated problems or issues Common Good. common good
The Common Good
Common Good Collectivist perspective individualistic perspective public interest
Units of Analysis
• • • • • • • The individual as a unit of analysis Sovereignty The sovereign individual/Citizen The state, kingdom, province, community The world, global or global village, The planet and the environment Gender, race, ethnicity, ability, sexuality
• • • • • • • • The concept of human nature The concept of power The concept of consent Authority and governance The individual Citizen as sovereign Individual and society or the collective The state, kingdom, province, community as political communities • Nation, national, local, global, globalization
What does it mean to be human? “ Man is a political animal” Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Humans are social beings by nature. Only a beast would live without being in a society or a political community. Society is the highest form of selfactualization The state of nature is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” Hobbes (1588-1679) A condition of war involving “every man against every man” Humans are selfish, driven by desires and aversions, engaged in a perpetual struggle till death. They seek to avoid violence, starvation and death by seeking power Humans are weak and helpless – St. Augustine (354-430) Humans are good but corruptible - Jean Jacques Rousseau
Politics and Power
The power to govern derives from: • The individual citizen/s as source of political legitimacy • The people as source of legitimacy - people power, class power • God (deity) -divine authority as source of legitimacy – theocracy, absolute monarchy • Traditional/expert authority as source of legitimacy - aristocracy, oligarchy, corporatism • Power as source of legitimacy - dictatorship, colonialism, imperialism • Politics is often seen as a struggle for power
Power and Politics
• • • • Power as the ability to bring about desired outcome Power as the ability to influence the actions of others Power as coercion - using fear or threats to achieve outcomes Power as the ability to impose one group’s interests on others - or to define them as the public interest • Power as the capacity to make decisions • Power to act - citizens • Power over others - subjects • Power as ubiquitous – Michel Foucault
– Power runs through all social relations – Knowledge as power – Power and resistance
Power to and Power over
Power understood as: Power to act:
– Being empowered to do something about events around you, achieve collective goals – People power - Gandhi and India, Philippines,Civil rights movements, feminist movement, social movements
• Power over others:
– Being subject to constraints imposed by others – Citizen as subject – Oppressions - imperialism, patriarchy, colonialism
• Film: A Force More Powerful • Take five minutes to prepare a short paragraph indicating what issue caught your attention in the video and why • Submit with your name and date
A force more powerful
• “How can a 100,000 men rule over 350million people” • “They have not taken India from us, we have given it to them” • “Gandhi intends to withdraw India’s consent to British rule” • “The song of the spinning wheels will become the song of freedom” • “As Britain lost America through tea, it is about to lose India through salt”
The struggle over India
The case study of India in “A force more powerful”
Consent as basis for governance
Consent and hegemony
normalized dominance hegemonic order
• Authority represents the ‘right to make decisions’ for a political community. • Political authority guarantees legitimacy – meaning that the governed accept the process and decisions of those in authority
Max Weber (1864-1920) • Traditional –authority invested in individuals by custom or heredity • Charismatic – authority derives from extraordinary personal qualities of a leader and the ability to inspire a following • Legal rationalism – authority defined by bureaucratic, procedural structures – Modern liberal democratic institutions – the emphasis is on expert knowledge – corporatism
• Legitimate authority is central to governance • Politics is often about maintaining legitimate authority • Effective governance depends on the legitimacy of those with power to get the people to act in ways that achieve their objectives • Legitimacy involves both consent and the acknowledgement of coercive force • All governments depend on the inclination of the population to obey the laws they pass but also rely on coercion to a certain extent • Question: Should individuals fight in an unpopular war?
Citizen as sovereign