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Design is a solution
Translation of requirements into ways of meeting them. How to design an IS? How to specify the features of system that will meet previously stated requirements.
Specifying application requirement
Requirement investigation Requirement anticipation Requirement specification
These are the methods for assembling data that describes how a system operates.
Review of requirement investigation objectives
Emphasis is on basic requirements. Understanding ongoing processes. Why and How they are performed? Identifying data used and information processing activities. Determining process timing and volume and identifying system control.
Questions Are there data stores that are never referenced? Are there processes that serve multiple purposes? Is the inflow of data adequate to perform the process? .
It will assist in perceiving system weaknesses and requirements.Perception of requirements: analysis of facts The perceptive capabilities of analyst will influence the result of analysis. Analysts analyze the details: What works well? What is ineffective and inefficient ? Where adjustments are needed? .
Steps to system development Preliminary investigation: Data collection: Assess system data: Identify design requirement Outline design strategy Analyze cost and benefits Formulate system proposal Present to management .
Facts to consider: Capacity Control Access to information Complexity .
equipment.Capacity : Description: Capability of current system (people. Design Strategies: Increase capabilities Lower expectations Redefine nature of task . procedures) to achieve its purpose and objective.
Control: ´keeping things on track´ Description: Mechanism designed to increase the likelihood that activities are carried out property and that unacceptable or unexpected events are detected and handled as exceptions. detect and fix control lapses. . detect and report control lapses. Design strategies: Design to avoid control lapses.
Design strategies: Eliminate need for information Ease access to information Eliminate need for processing change method of presentation .Information accessibility: Description: availability of information needed to accomplish an objective when it is needed and in a useful form.
steps or activities resulting in unacceptable or incomplete performance. interrelated.Complexity: Description: Involved. Design strategies: Simplify Partition Resequence . excessive numbers of tasks. may lead to problems In capacity. control or information accessibility.
Design of system consist of logical and physical design .Lecture 2:Objectives in designing an information system Requirements are translated into design specifications.
Logical design elements I/O specifications File and database specifications Processing specifications Requirements data .
Physical design elements Programs: data entry reporting communication reporting file maintenance backup Files: transaction reports .
1.i/p. Eg: blue print .Specify the logical design At the time of logical design analyst describe its features like o/p.file and database and procedures.
Physical construction The activity following the logical design Produce program s/w. note: design specifications instruct programmers about what the system should do. process data. And the programmer in turn write the programs that accept input from the users. produce report and store data in the files. . files and a working system.
Support business activities Support business activity for which it is prepared. if it is essential for an organization to move information very quickly to remain competitive. For example.2. .then the design specifications of the information must be based around this essential business objective. Eg: automated teller machines.
Provides an acceptable interface and method of interaction Is perceived by users as a reliable system. Produce accurate results. 2. 5. 4. . We can say that IS meets user needs if it accomplishes the following: Perform right procedures properly Presents information and instructions in an acceptable and effective fashion. 3.Ensure the system features meet user requirements 1.
Provide a system engineered for ease of use by people Human engineering Formulate a system that: 1. 5. Prevent failure 4. Provide flexibility to fit a variety of individual needs. 3. Deters user error or carelessness. Incorporates system features that are easy to understand and use 2. Generally functions in a manner that seems natural to the user. .
comfort and satisfaction of direct user.Ergonomic design Refers to the physical factors of an IS that affects the performance.user efficiency and even asbsenteeism. . Design of terminals. chairs and other equipments that influences the amount of fatigue These factors affects such concerns as errors during data entry.
Selection of programming language. . output and processing functions and algorithms used to perform them.Provide detailed s/w development specification The specification states input . s/w packages.
2. 4. 3. Areas included in design standards Data standards Coding standards Structural standards Documentation standards .Conform to logical design 1.
the components or elements of the system and their appearance to users. .Lec What features must be designed? The design specification describes the features of the system.
Elements of the design Data flows Data stores Processes Procedures Controls roles .
and out of the system. around.Data flows The movement of data into. Logical physical .
Data stores Temporary or permanent collection of data .
manipulate.Processes Activities to accept. may be manual or computer based . and deliver data and information.
Procedures Methods and routines for using the information system to achieve intended results. .
Specify actions when problems or unexpected circumstances are detected.controls Standards and guidelines for determining whether activities are occurring in the anticipated or accepted manner that is ³under control´. .
. including end users.Roles The responsibility of all persons involved with the new system. computer operators and support personnel.
. Most end users will not actually operate the information system or enter data through work stations.Design of output Refers to the ³results´. but they will use the output from the system.
Arrange the presentation of information in an acceptable format. . print.SA must accomplish the following: Determine what information to present Decide whether to display. [layout] Decide how to distribute the output to intended recipients. or speak the information and select the output medium.
historical data. Length of each record The sequencing or arrangement of records within the file. It include decision about the nature and content of files itself such as whether it is to be used for storing transactions details. or reference information. 2. . Things to consider: Which data items to include in a record format within the file.Design of files 1. 3.
Design of database interactions Large or small computer systems. . Design is established and monitored by a database administrator. SA does not perform database design but consult with the database administrator to determine the most appropriate database interaction. interact with databases that span multiple applications.
2. [update] . Data needed from the database Actions that will affect the database.SA provide the database administrator with description of: 1.
Ensure that the application cannot damage the database or adversely affect the needs of other information system application in any way. .The role of administrator includes the following responsibilities: Evaluate the appropriateness of the analysts¶ request Describe methods for interaction with database.
Design of input What data to input What medium to use How the data should be arranged or coded The dialogue to users in preventing input Data items and transactions needing validation to detect errors. . Methods for performing input validation and steps to follow when errors occur.
Design of control Ensure that only authorized users access the system Guarantee that the transaction area acceptable Validate the data for accuracy .
Design of procedures Data entry procedures Run time procedures Error handling procedures Security and backup procedures. .
Design of program specifications Program specifications are themselves a design.into computer software. files. they describe how to transform the system design specifications. input. .for output. processing and so on.
The structure of software into modules permits suitable testing and validation to be sure procedures are correct. .Designing computer software is important to ensure that: The actual programs produced perform all tasks and do so in the manner intended. Future modifications can be made in an efficient manner and with a minimum disruption to the design of the system.
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