The analysis to design transition

Design is a solution
Translation of requirements into ways of meeting them.  How to design an IS?  How to specify the features of system that will meet previously stated requirements.

Specifying application requirement
Requirement investigation Requirement anticipation Requirement specification 


These are the methods for assembling data that describes how a system operates.

Review of requirement investigation objectives 

Emphasis is on basic requirements. Understanding ongoing processes. Why and How they are performed? Identifying data used and information processing activities. Determining process timing and volume and identifying system control.

Questions    Are there data stores that are never referenced? Are there processes that serve multiple purposes? Is the inflow of data adequate to perform the process? .

Perception of requirements: analysis of facts    The perceptive capabilities of analyst will influence the result of analysis. Analysts analyze the details: What works well? What is ineffective and inefficient ? Where adjustments are needed? . It will assist in perceiving system weaknesses and requirements.

Steps to system development         Preliminary investigation: Data collection: Assess system data: Identify design requirement Outline design strategy Analyze cost and benefits Formulate system proposal Present to management .

Facts to consider:     Capacity Control Access to information Complexity .

Capacity : Description: Capability of current system (people. procedures) to achieve its purpose and objective.  Design Strategies: Increase capabilities Lower expectations Redefine nature of task . equipment.

detect and report control lapses. Design strategies: Design to avoid control lapses. detect and fix control lapses.Control: ´keeping things on track´ Description: Mechanism designed to increase the likelihood that activities are carried out property and that unacceptable or unexpected events are detected and handled as exceptions. .

Information accessibility:    Description: availability of information needed to accomplish an objective when it is needed and in a useful form. Design strategies: Eliminate need for information Ease access to information Eliminate need for processing change method of presentation .

Complexity:   Description: Involved. steps or activities resulting in unacceptable or incomplete performance. control or information accessibility. may lead to problems In capacity. Design strategies: Simplify Partition Resequence . interrelated. excessive numbers of tasks.

Lecture 2:Objectives in designing an information system   Requirements are translated into design specifications. Design of system consist of logical and physical design .

Logical design elements     I/O specifications File and database specifications Processing specifications Requirements data .

Physical design elements  Programs: data entry reporting communication reporting file maintenance backup Files: transaction reports  .

file and database and procedures.Specify the logical design   At the time of logical design analyst describe its features like o/p. Eg: blue print .i/p.1.

files and a working system. process data. .Physical construction     The activity following the logical design Produce program s/w. And the programmer in turn write the programs that accept input from the users. note: design specifications instruct programmers about what the system should do. produce report and store data in the files.

if it is essential for an organization to move information very quickly to remain competitive.then the design specifications of the information must be based around this essential business objective.2.Support business activities    Support business activity for which it is prepared. . For example. Eg: automated teller machines.

3. Provides an acceptable interface and method of interaction Is perceived by users as a reliable system.Ensure the system features meet user requirements  1. 2. 4. We can say that IS meets user needs if it accomplishes the following: Perform right procedures properly Presents information and instructions in an acceptable and effective fashion. . Produce accurate results. 5.

Deters user error or carelessness. Incorporates system features that are easy to understand and use 2. Prevent failure 4. 5. Generally functions in a manner that seems natural to the user. 3. . Provide flexibility to fit a variety of individual needs.Provide a system engineered for ease of use by people Human engineering  Formulate a system that: 1.

user efficiency and even asbsenteeism. . comfort and satisfaction of direct user. chairs and other equipments that influences the amount of fatigue These factors affects such concerns as errors during data entry. Design of terminals.Ergonomic design    Refers to the physical factors of an IS that affects the performance.

output and processing functions and algorithms used to perform them. Selection of programming language. .Provide detailed s/w development specification   The specification states input . s/w packages.

4.Conform to logical design  1. 2. 3. Areas included in design standards Data standards Coding standards Structural standards Documentation standards .

. the components or elements of the system and their appearance to users.Lec[3] What features must be designed?  The design specification describes the features of the system.

Elements of the design       Data flows Data stores Processes Procedures Controls roles .

around.Data flows The movement of data into. Logical physical  . and out of the system.

Data stores  Temporary or permanent collection of data .

Processes  Activities to accept. may be manual or computer based . and deliver data and information. manipulate.

Procedures  Methods and routines for using the information system to achieve intended results. .

. Specify actions when problems or unexpected circumstances are detected.controls   Standards and guidelines for determining whether activities are occurring in the anticipated or accepted manner that is ³under control´.

Roles  The responsibility of all persons involved with the new system. including end users. . computer operators and support personnel.

but they will use the output from the system.Design of output   Refers to the ³results´. . Most end users will not actually operate the information system or enter data through work stations.

[layout] Decide how to distribute the output to intended recipients. Arrange the presentation of information in an acceptable format. . or speak the information and select the output medium.SA must accomplish the following:     Determine what information to present Decide whether to display. print.

. historical data. or reference information. 3. It include decision about the nature and content of files itself such as whether it is to be used for storing transactions details. Length of each record The sequencing or arrangement of records within the file.Design of files   1. 2. Things to consider: Which data items to include in a record format within the file.

SA does not perform database design but consult with the database administrator to determine the most appropriate database interaction. interact with databases that span multiple applications. Design is established and monitored by a database administrator. .Design of database interactions    Large or small computer systems.

[update] .SA provide the database administrator with description of: 1. Data needed from the database Actions that will affect the database. 2.

Ensure that the application cannot damage the database or adversely affect the needs of other information system application in any way. .The role of administrator includes the following responsibilities:    Evaluate the appropriateness of the analysts¶ request Describe methods for interaction with database.

Design of input       What data to input What medium to use How the data should be arranged or coded The dialogue to users in preventing input Data items and transactions needing validation to detect errors. Methods for performing input validation and steps to follow when errors occur. .

Design of control    Ensure that only authorized users access the system Guarantee that the transaction area acceptable Validate the data for accuracy .

Design of procedures     Data entry procedures Run time procedures Error handling procedures Security and backup procedures. .

for output. input.Design of program specifications  Program specifications are themselves a design. .into computer software. files. they describe how to transform the system design specifications. processing and so on.

Future modifications can be made in an efficient manner and with a minimum disruption to the design of the system. The structure of software into modules permits suitable testing and validation to be sure procedures are correct. .Designing computer software is important to ensure that:    The actual programs produced perform all tasks and do so in the manner intended.

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