POG 100: Introduction to Politics and Governance, Section 1/2/3/4 Fall 2007

November 06 2007

November 06 2007
• Review: Citizenship and representation • New Politics, social movements and resistance • Political systems and political Participation • Film: 30 Second Democracy

Review:Citizens and Citizenship
• The concept of citizenship has a long history. • Greek citizenship is often identified as the earliest form of citizenship but it was accorded to a fraction of those who lived in Athens and had property, were male and white – only 20% of the population • It is embedded in the Lockean idea that the relationships between the people and their government are consensual and contractual • Also has roots in the French revolution and the demands or equality, fraternity and • Citizenship rights and responsibilities derive from such considerations as birth, naturalizations, etc • Who is a citizen? Who should be a citizen? Does that change in a multicultural environment with increased migration? • Modern concept is based on universal recognition of common equality of humanity but still carries excluding boundaries along territory, etc

Citizen and Citizenship
• To be a citizen presupposes being part of a specific political community, participation in its economic and social life and the enjoyment of its support in case of need. • Modern dimension of citizenship denotes a form of social citizenship, which, along with the concept of equality helps define the contours or boundaries of social inclusion/exclusion (Byrne, 1999)

Citizenship
• Citizenship, is understood as a:
– relationship between the individual and the state as well as among individuals, – It is the concrete expression of the fundamental principle of equality among members of the political community (Jenson & Papillon, 2001).

• Citizenship represents the:

– “concrete expression of the principle of equality among
members of the political community” Jenson and Papillon (2000)

Citizenship as a contested concept
• Citizenship transcends the legal definitions that are the basis for determining who votes, who holds what passport and who is protected when in danger abroad • Three key axes for the debate:
– Rights versus responsibilities – Universality versus difference – National versus global

Dimensions of Citizenship
• Rights and responsibilities. • Equal access • Belonging or identity.
– These processes are dynamic so neither equal access nor belonging are automatically achieved. – Societies require agency to foster equality and improve access in the same way they need strategies to ensure meaningful participation in the democratic process and the full exercise of citizenship rights, all which vary over time and place. – Given the nature of power relations and unequal social relations in societies, various social forces engage in struggles to gain better access for certain categories of citizenship on the one hand, and to the transform oppressive structures, institutional practices and change the boundaries of access on the other.

Rights and responsibilities
• Rights and responsibilities are founded in liberal conceptions of citizenship as guaranteeing political and civil rights in exchange for certain responsibilities such as paying taxes, informed participation and defending the polity when called upon. • T.H. Marshall (1964) has enumerated a set of rights and responsibilities that have come to define this dimension including Civil rights, Political rights, Social rights

Rights
• The right to protection of life and property • The right to protection against disease • The right to free speech • The right to freedom of worship • The right to freedom from false imprisonment • The right to trial by jury • The right to healthful surroundings • The right to a good education

Responsibilities
• • • • • • • The duty of obedience to law The duty of paying taxes The duty of military service The duty of voting The duty of office-holding The duty of jury service The duty of keeping healthy

Equal Access
• The second dimension of citizenship, which corresponds to equal access to the resources of society, is important because it is fundamental to any claims of equality. • It is built on the civic recognition that basic levels of material well being are essential to sustaining meaningful access to full citizenship and to fostering participation. • The degree of access varies within and across political communities, depending on institutional design, and according to the support given by the state and the community to the groups excluded by the social, economic or cultural structures within the society. • This notion of citizenship invokes the state as guarantor of the principles of equality among members and dignity for the individual or group • It assumes a modern conception of the state as a positive actor in society

Belonging and Identity
• Citizenship defines the boundaries of belonging, giving specific recognition and status to members to participate and benefit from the political community. • Citizenship is also a source of, as well as a determinant of identity • Concepts such as shared history, shared experience, culture and common bond, are central to creating a sense of belonging • State action to ensure harmony and multicultural expression can also be key to creating a complex, diverse citizenship

Universality and difference
• Universality denotes: equality in the eyes of the state • However, formal citizenship rights do not translate into substantive equality • Universality may mask differences that have social significance in the daily lives of citizens: social class, gender, race, disability, immigrant status, and even regional • Where these obtain, the separation gives rise to inequality, discrimination, sexism, racism, ablism, etc. • Citizenship as an incomplete project today (Castles, 1994) • Structures of inclusion and exclusion undermine full citizenship

Threats to conventional notions of citizenship: Global citizenship
• Globalization challenges the conventional wisdom that the state is the basis for citizenship because it provides the infrastructure for citizenship rights • Global economic and political institutions (such as IFIs, TNCs) can be said to represent ‘unaccountable power’. • It blurs the boundaries of citizenship and obscures the: – “lines of responsibility and accountability of national states” (Held, 1989) • Is citizenship increasingly detached from the nation state? – Global citizenship and global civil society – Regional citizenship e.g. European Union and European social citizenship – NAFTA and closer economic relations – the emergence of epistemic communities

Threats: Citizenship as a fluid concept • Citizenship and nationalism (ethnicity and religions as basis for citizenship) • Mono-cultural and multicultural citizenship • Shared citizenship • Thick and Thin citizenship • Open citizenship • Social inclusion and social exclusion

Threats: Social exclusion
• • Social inclusion implies the fulfillment of the ideals of citizenship, while social exclusion suggests the failure to achieve full citizenship by some members of society. Social exclusion involves exclusion from civil society through legal sanction or other institutional mechanisms. A broader conception of this aspect would include substantive disconnection from civil society because of systemic or institutional forms of discrimination based on race, ethnicity, gender, disability, sexual orientation, and religion. Secondly, social exclusion refers to the denial of social goods to particular groups or society’s failure to provide for the needs of particular groups - such as accommodation for persons with disability, housing for the homeless, language services for immigrants, or sanctions to deter forms of discrimination. Third, there is social exclusion from social production, a denial of opportunity to contribute to or participate actively in society And fourth, is economic exclusion from social consumption – involving unequal or lack of access to normal forms of livelihood.

• •

New Politics, social movements and resistance
• • • • • • Culture Civil Society Social Movements Gender Race Environmental politics

New politics
• The various forms of exclusion have motivated new forms of politics aimed at addressing the material and social disadvantages and oppression of identifiable groups and reconstituting citizenship as an inclusive sphere • New discourses representing new ways of looking at old political questions have emerged as have new forms of organizing and political mobilization • Feminism, post-colonialism, post-modernism, environmentalism, to name but a few • These represent new forms of politics, new identities and claims on the state and society’s resources • They also suggest new ways of social and political organization

Cultural identity
• Cultural identity is a basis for differences between nation-states but also among groups within society • Understood as a shared way of life and common experience • Cultural identity implies a collective experience relating to language, system of beliefs, customs, norms, dress, conventions, religion etc. • It is transferable from generations to generation • Cultural identities are organic but socially constructed • Cultural roots are a basis for political socialization and mobilization • Cultural studies focus on stratification in society and the unequal relations of power, experiences of oppression and structures of domination that derive from them • According to Gramsci (1891-1937), culture is key to understanding the possibility of change, resistance and emancipation as well as the maintenance of hegemony through cultural/knowledge production

Civil Society
• • • • • • Gramsci suggested that it is in the arena of civil society that the struggles between the dominant cultures and subordinate cultures are waged Civil society is the contested, complex concept used to describe the arena, activities, relationships, practices and mobilizations outside the formal boundaries of the state, but that influence what goes on within the state The sphere of citizen organized political and associational activity between the family and the state and involving struggles against the state Civil society organizations or community based organizations are some of the associations that emerge in civil society - many local, national and some global What is the relationship between civil society and the market in a time when market institutions are as dominant as the state? Popular movements, local and transnational social movements emerge in civil society to mobilize and organize political protests

• Women’s movement, anti-war, environmental, race based, disability and gay and lesbian movements are key social movements in modern politics

Problematics of Social Movements
• Debates about social movements involve the very nature of social movements: - Political: they are ‘political’ and involve collective political action; they can embrace silent resistances – foot dragging, acts of disobedience, etc for instance, - Continuous or discontinuous: contemporary social movements are ‘New’ and materially based…reflecting bread and butter concerns or social or are they simply identity based - violent or non-violent: Are they non-violent or can they involve armed struggle? Chiapas in Mexico …the Zapatistas. - Institutional or non-institutional - informal or formal. Non-governmental organizations increasingly bureaucratized and institutionalized - Scale: Local or global - Are they strictly local and rooted in local struggles or can they be organized on a global scale, using modern technologies like the internet. The Anti-war rallies that brought millions to the streets in February were largely coordinated via the internet and signal the emergence of a global civil society and perhaps the potential for a global counter-movement.

Gender
• • While biology determines a person’s sex, social, political and cultural forces determine their place in society Biological determinism is the belief that woman’s nature and possibilities are determined by her biology. Gender is the social construction of masculinity and femininity translating into patriarchy - rule by men or men’s control over the society’s dominant ideas and institutions. Gender is a key dimension of the stratification in society and because patriarchy implies systemic gender inequality gender has become an important basis for political socialization and mobilization to address the condition of oppression women experience Women’s oppression - a system of interrelated barriers and forces which reduce, immobilize or mould people belonging to certain identifiable groups leading to their subordination Oppression is manifested in women’s under-representation in arenas of political, economic and cultural power, as well as disproportionate responsibility in social reproduction Feminism has emerged as the ideology of analysis of women’s oppression and action against it. Feminist movements are key social movements. Feminist political action seeks women’s liberty and control over their bodies and lives

• • • •

Women’s subordinate position in Politics
• Women constitute 70% of the world’s poor • 2/3 of the world’s illiterate • Occupy only 14% of the world’s management and administrative jobs • 10% of legislative seats • 6% of national cabinet positions • Work longer hours, many unpaid and most undervalued • Limited reproductive rights and sexually exploited • Remain vulnerable to all forms of violence, including sexual, physical, emotional, and use of rape as war

Gendered division of time
Nepal Time Input into Village and Domestic work Activity Men Women
• • • • • • • • • • Cooking and Serving Cleaning Maintenance Laundry Shopping Child Care Animal Husbandry Gathering and Hunting Water Collection Food processing 10 5 7 10 54 16 55 60 8 13 90 95 93 90 46 84 45 40 92 87

Race
• • • • • • • • Race and racialization are bases of oppression and resistance Race is a difficult concept to define because it is more a social construction than an essential biological concept. Race is used to denote arbitrary physical and social traits as a basis for difference among peoples The process of racialization involves the construction of racial categories as real, different but giving them social value as unequal leading to economic, social, and political inequalities in society along racial lines. Racialized peoples are historical victims of colonization and oppression. They are more likely to be poor and face discrimination in education, employment, business and political institutions, among others. They have responded to this condition by organizing anti-colonial and antiracism movements Indigenous movements have arisen around the world to make territorial claim to their ancestral lands Anti-racist action is about emancipation from subordination and exploitaiton

Aboriginal movements
• • • • • • • In Canada, Aboriginal peoples - Indians, Metis, Inuit -have been the victims of cultural genocide and socio-economic and political marginalization Aboriginal peoples did not get the vote until 1960. While over 4% of Canada’s population, Aboriginal people are the poorest and most disadvantaged In the 1960s and 1970s, Aboriginal peoples movements sprung up demanding their treaty rights be honoured by the Canadian state and Canadian society The confrontations escalated from legal contests to some of the most dramatic confrontations with the Canadian state While there have been confrontation in Burnt-Church, Ipperwash, perhaps the armed stand off at the Quebec town of Oka in 1990 stands out. The Oka crisis began with plans by the Town Council of Oka’s plans to expand a golf course into what the Mohawk of Kenastake claimed to be their ancestral burial grounds. It escalated into an armed stand off in which a police officer was killed and the Canadian armed forces deployed

Key themes in Canada-Aboriginal relations
• Socio-economic problems such as the persistence of poverty, high rates of infant mortality, suicides, disease, unemployment, discrimination, woefully inadequate education, inadequate housing on reserves etc. • Settlement of Native land claims • Aboriginal self government and sovereignty • The paternalistic Indian Act and the Dept. of Indian and Northern Development Act • These have periodically led to confrontations between Aboriginal communities and the Canadian state

Oka crisis of 1990
• • This crisis represented the most dramatic challenge to politics in Canada. At issue in the village of Oka (40 kilometers from Montreal) was a struggle over the ownership of land on which a municipal golf course was to be extended. The Mohawks claimed the land as theirs and argued that it was a sacred burials ground and that the town had no right to extend the gold course on their land. In March 1990, the Mohawks of nearby Kanestake reserve block the road leading to the disputed lands. On July 11, 1990 The Surete du Quebec raided the blockade and in the raid one S.Q. officer was killed. The Mohawks from Kahnawake reserve blockaded the Mercier Bridge linking Montreal to the suburbs, in sympathy with their kith and kin at Oka. The blockade generated a considerable backlash and racism directed at the protestors. The federal government decided to send Canadian troops to Oka to confront the Mohawk warriors. In effect, the troops were deployed against Canadians and acted as an internal occupying force. The confrontation between the troops and the warriors lasted 78 days and on September 26, after facing constant harassment and intimidation the warriors agreed to a mediated settlement and surrendered

Environmentalism
• Key environmental concerns have become a basis for new discourses and political mobilization
– Increased emissions of greenhouse gases leading to global climate changes – Depletion of non-renewable natural resources – Devastation of rain forests – Pollution of various forms leading to health hazards

• • • •

The ideology of environmentalism emerged to address these concerns. It seeks to transform the relationship between human being and nature to ensure a better balance and sustainability Environmentalism argues that there are limits to the growth of production and consumption and the size of the world’s population Sustainability means maintaining the integrity of the eco-systems to ensure that depletion does not exceed regeneration Sustainable development: Meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet theirs

Political process
• • • • • • • • • Political system Political community Political participation Political parties Electoral systems Interest groups Policy communities Public opinion and public debate Mass Media

Political system
• A mechanism that facilitates the process of decision making in society • Depends on the political culture of the society - the values, attitudes, ideas and beliefs of the political community (these are often competing and contradictory) • Dominant political values in Canadian society include concepts of individualism, equality and human rights - however these values coexist with classism, racism, sexism, ablism, homophobia, etc • In other societies, the focus is on order and community - China (community over individual) • Political cultures and systems are reproduced through a process of political socialization - transfer of values, beliefs through institutions • The political system is sustained by the roles of social groups • Easton: Input (demands by political community - decision making process (policy options and choices) - output model (implementation)

Political participation
• Political participation varies from political system to system • Political culture determines who participates and to what extent - focus on political and civil rights • Political activities affect every member of society, whether they know it or not • In liberal democracies, political participation is the right and responsibility of every citizen • Political participation as a spectator sport • Some are directly involved in the political process while others take varying degrees of interest from a distance

Representation
• In liberal democracy, political participation is identified with political representation • Representation is a prominent element of the political system • Elected officials are assumed to be extensions of the people they represent and are given responsibilities to make decisions on their behalf based on their platform, political affiliation, personal judgment, office and know-how • The degree of freedom representatives have to act is an issue in contention – Should they only represent the views of their constituent (JenaJacques Rousseau) – Should they make informed decision based on their ‘expertise’ even if these are not their constituent opinions (Edmund Burke) • Referendums, recall, propositions

Electoral systems
• Elections are the pillar of representative democracy • Electoral systems represent a form of indirect democracy and yet, electoral systems are the most direct form of political participation in liberal democracies • Election are used to decide who will be the government (exercize authority) on behalf of the political community • Electoral systems set out formal conditions and restrictions by which elections are conducted.
– They are expected to be free and fair and conducted by Secret ballot – Elector belong to constituencies and are enumerated on to voters lists – Universal suffrage - all adults of a certain age can participate as electors (voters) or candidates or office (Women were not considered persons and so could not vote or run for elected office in Canada until 1926 (Quebec 1940; Newfoundland 1948). Aboriginal people could not vote in some provinces until 1960. Immigrants cannot vote until they become citizens

Political parties
• Political parties are the most important institutions in the process of seeking power - Multi-party, two-party and one party systems • Political parties are organized groups that present members as candidates for election as well as represent key political ideological beliefs and values about politics, the economy, social issues • Their function is to present a broad perspective on a range of issues, organize interests and to link society with government • Political parties became significant with the expansion of the franchise so they could represent the diverse view of thee people • We tend to hear about them at election time but they have on-going processes of mobilization, political education, organization and when not in power, act as pressure groups within the political system • Mass parties (liberals, conservatives, New Democrats, Reform, Bloc Quebecois); Cadre parties (elite driven to control power)

Interest groups
• Political participation occurs on a variety of levels beyond political parties • Individuals and groups can also influence state action through interest groups or lobbying • Interest groups are pressure groups that seek to alter or maintain public policy without seeking power • Their role in liberal democracies has become increasingly more prominent and they are now an accepted part of the policy making community although derived as single issue oriented • In some jurisdictions, there are laws regulating the role of interest groups especially that of professionals representatives called lobbyists • Political action committees, civil society associations, anomic groups • Use a variety of tactics including petitions, meetings, hearings, direct political action such as demonstrations, sit-ins, street theatre

Policy communities
• Policy development involves a variety of actors within and outside government • Formal processes involve elected representative and the members of the bureaucracy • However, informal processes and actors also influence policy • According to Coleman and Skogstad (1990),
– Policy communities involve a collection of key actors with direct or indirect influence on the development of public policy – Have different levels of influence on the decision making process – Individuals and groups some of which have a disproportionate impact on decision making – Business groups (Business Council on national Issues); – Civil society groups (Council of Canadians, Mothers Against Drunk Driving, labour unions, environmentalists, farmers organizations

Public opinion and public debate
• Political participation involves expressing political opinions and getting involved in the public debate or public discourse • Public opinions are shaped by the political culture and processes of political socialization • Citizens make their views known about government actions through expressing their opinions - Legitimacy of regimes • Freedom of expression a fundamental principle of liberal democracy • Public opinions are often in conflict and contradictory - pro and antigay marriage, pro and anti-free trade; pro an anti-tuition freeze • Public opinion polls - gauging the public pulse (market research) • Public opinion often determines what position a government will take on an issue because governments seek public approval • Public opinion can also be shaped by governments - government have huge communications budgets - propaganda, sponsorship scandal

Mass Media
• Because political participation depends on information, the role of the media is critical to the political process • News organizations are the most organized institution involved in disseminating information contribute to the substance of public debate • Its role if constitutionally protected - Freedom of the press - media assumed to be independent and neutral • Public and private media - raise money through advertising • Media represents the interests of those who own it, control and those who work in it and are responsible for the editorial output of the media • Diffusion of media through internet access and information dissemination • Political actors attempt to use the media to get their normative views to the population. However, the media also uses them for its own ends. • Political advertising - does this corrupt the democratic process?