ENG 108

The Nature of Narrative, 1

Intertextuality, Adaptation, Appropriation, and other forms of Cultural Recycling

Recycling Culture
n

n n

How does “Culture” get recycled? Why do it? How is Hamlet being recycled?

how is Hamlet being “reactivated” or “reanimated” or “recirculated”? What sort of recycling is involved in R&G rdead?

Recycling Culture
How?
   

Intertextuality Adaptation, Appropriation Parody Translation and transposition
  

Language Culture Genre

Other?

Review of intertextuality

What is it?

(pretend this is an exam question)

Definition
Intertextuality
 

 

interdependence of texts meaning not in isolated texts but in their interaction “interplay” (re-)interpretation by the writer/artist/director and also by the reader/viewer

Definition

(See Course Reading Package, p. 63)

Intertextuality
   

Text as part of a network or web Text is not a self-sufficient, closed system Text, therefore, as process not product That process is ongoing

Definition

according to Michael Riffaterre

(See Course Reading Package, p. 65)

Intertext = the network of texts that may
be related to the text being considered

Intertextuality = the reader’s
perception of that network

Definition

(See Course Reading Package, p. 43)

Intertextuality

 

“all texts invoke and rework other texts in a rich and ever-evolving cultural mosaic” Bricolage Central to Postmodernity

Intertextuality in Culture

“almost omnipresent today in modern popular culture”  Examples? Also true of other areas of culture

Why use intertextuality?

Why use intertextuality?
 

 

To add complexity to a work To “contextualize” or place the work in a cultural context To highlight the concept of culture as ongoing process To recycle culture (rework, reuse) To highlight issues of inclusion and exclusion?  Elite vs. “democratic” or accessible culture

Why use intertextuality?

To add “pleasure” to the reading or viewing experience  Cf. “pleasure principle” outlined in the article on Adaptation and Appropriation

Parody

Definition?

Parody
 

Not always satiric or comic Parody is important to postmodern culture

Parody
Definition:
Repetition with critical or ironic difference (Linda Hutcheon, A Theory of Parody)

Parody

recycling through repetition

René Magritte
(1898-1967) Belgian Surrealist

series of paintings under the general title "Perspective"  late 1940s to early 1950s based on well-known paintings by the earlier French artists Jacques Louis David, François Gérard and Édouard Manet.

Jacques Louis David Madame Récamier (unfinished), 1800

René Magritte Perspective I: Madame Récamier, 1950

Edouard Manet Le balcon, 1868

René Magritte Perspective II: Le balcon de Manet, 1950

Diego Velásquez Innocent X, c. 1650

Francis Bacon Study After Velazquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X, 1953

The rational body
      

Authority Centre Certainty Hierarchy Unity Coherence Control

The irrational, grotesque body  Decentring  Ex-centricity  Loss  Fragmentation/chaos  Disintegration  Multiplicity  Excess

Parody
What are the effects of parody? Why use it?
 

Makes a statement Again, the pleasure principle:  Aristotle’s Poetics  Natural delight in mimesis  Mimesis = imitation or representation in art (art reflects life; art as a copy)  with parody, art reflects other art in a particular way)

Parody

A Double-edged Sword?
Reinscribes and problematizes at the same time

Pays homage to the original while simultaneously critiquing it

Adaptation and Appropriation

  

(from course reading package)

The forms of Adaptation:
Transposition (45) Commentary (45) Analogue (46)
Adaptations don’t have to fit into only one of these categories

Adaptation and Appropriation

(from course reading package)

The forms of Adaptation:
Transposition (45) “they take the text from one genre and deliver it to new audiences…” “relocating their source texts not just generically, but in cultural, geographical, and temporal terms”

Adaptation and Appropriation

(from course reading package)

The forms of Adaptation:
Commentary (45) “culturally loaded” “adaptations that comment on the politics of the source text”

 

Adaptation and Appropriation

(from course reading package)

The forms of Adaptation:
Analogue (46) “stand-alone works that nevertheless deepen when their status as analogue is revealed”

Adaptation and Appropriation

Fidelity, originality argument (47)

Getting away from a vertical hierarchy of original text and subservient, derivative texts that are judged according to their “faithfulness to an original” Cf. Hutcheon, A Theory of Adaptation, 2006

Adaptation and Appropriation

Definition of Adaptation:

“a relationship [or interaction] with an informing sourcetext or original” (49)
Version, variation, interpretation, continuation, transformation, imitation, pastiche, parody, forgery, travesty, transposition, revaluation, revision, rewriting, echo (44)

Related terms:

Adaptation and Appropriation

Definition of Appropriation:

“a more decisive journey away from the informing source into a wholly new cultural product and domain” (49) “sustained reworking of the source text” (50) “wholesale rethinking” (50)

Adaptation and Appropriation

Definition of Appropriation:

Entanglement (56)
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead as entangled with Hamlet  the two texts overlap in some places, diverge in others

Recycling culture
Why?

Consider Walter Benjamin’s “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”

Walter Benjamin,

“The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”

“We must expect great innovations to transform the entire technique of the arts, thereby affecting artistic invention itself and perhaps even bringing about an amazing change in our very notion of art.”
Paul Valery, qtd. in Benjamin

Walter Benjamin,

“The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”

Most powerful agent of mass or mechanical reproduction is film.

Walter Benjamin,

“The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”

“Shakespeare, Rembrandt, Beethoven will make films … all legends, all mythologies and all myths, all founders of religion, and the very religions … await their exposed resurrection, and the heroes crowd each other at the gate.”
Abel Gance, 1927 (qtd. in Benjamin)

Walter Benjamin,

“The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”

“Shakespeare, Rembrandt, Beethoven will make films … all legends, all mythologies and all myths, all founders of religion, and the very religions … await their exposed resurrection, and the heroes crowd each other at the gate.”
Abel Gance, 1927 (qtd. in Benjamin)

Walter Benjamin,

“The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”
“Shakespeare, Rembrandt, Beethoven will make films …”
 

 

Note the phrasing here Not “Shakespeare’s plays will be adapted for cinema” but Shakespeare will make film Do we read this literally? Or is “Shakespeare” referring to the text, not the man?

Walter Benjamin,

“The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”
“Shakespeare, Rembrandt, Beethoven will make films …”

Cf. idea of text as process not product. As part of that process, text-as-play becomes text-as-film Kinetic concept of adaptation = “…these texts rework other texts that often themselves reworked other texts. The process of adaptation is constant and ongoing” (47).

Cultural Recycling in Film

Shakespeare, Taming of the Shrew

10 Things I Hate About You

Cultural Recycling in Film

Jane Austen, Emma

Clueless

Cultural Recycling in Film

Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet
 

Shakespeare’s Romeo + Juliet West Side Story

Cultural Recycling in Film

Shakespeare, Hamlet

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead

play >>> film

Why recycle culture?

Why recycle culture?

To capitalize on the strength/familiarity of the original text To make the original more accessible to a broader audience  See Benjamin’s argument regarding mass reproduction of art

Why recycle culture?

  

To “problematize” the original or make some sort of critique of it To add complexity To contextualize (genealogy/influence) Other reasons?

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead

What sort of recycling is involved here?

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead

What sort of recycling is involved here?
  

Adaptation? Appropriation? Intertextuality?
Waiting for Godot meets Hamlet?  Theatre of the Absurd?

 

Parody? Translation?

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