# An Introduction to heat transfer

VINOO

Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

What is thermodynamics, Heat and Temperature Explain the relationship between Thermodynamics and heat transfer Explain the relationship between temperature and thermal equilibrium. Explain how heat flows in physical systems in terms of conduction, convection, and radiation. Describe free and forced convection and recognize these processes in real-life applications. Identify the relationship between wavelength, color, infrared light, and thermal radiation. Calculate the heat transfer in watts for conduction, convection, and radiation in simple systems. Explain how the radiation heat-transfer processes and its applications

What is Thermodynamics?
Thermo means heat" and Dynamics relates to "movement"; in essence thermodynamics studies the movement of heat energy and how that energy makes mechanical movement (i.e. does work). Thermodynamics is a science about the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume and how these changes effect a physical system. (e.g. a car engine, an air conditioner)

½ mv2 . .What is Heat? Heat Energy is a type of kinetic energy Heat Energy relates to Thermal Energy (or internal energy) Thermal Energy is the sum of the kinetic energy. of ALL the individual atoms in a system or object. Heat is the energy that flows from one object to another due to a temperature difference.

the energy is called Heat .When Energy flows from a hot object to a cold object.

y Thompson suggested that heat came from friction (or mechanical energy). y Benjamin Thompson observed that canons bored with dull tools became very hot while those bored with sharp tools did not get as hot. The heat generated had nothing to do with the size of the canon.Before 1800. Heat was thought to be an invisible fluid that flowed between objects y Objects were thought to contain fixed quantities of heat. .

as measured with a sensitive thermometer. In this experiment the kinetic energy of the paddle is transferred to thermal energy in the water.James Joule tests the predictions: James Joule¶s experiment proved that heat was a form of energy. .

in thermal equilibrium). No heat is transferred between two objects that are at the same temperature (i.What is Temperature? Temperature is a measurement of the average thermal energy of the particles in a substance.e. but the gallon of boiling water has more thermal energy than the cup. A cup of boiling water is at the same temperature as a gallon of boiling water. . Heat flows due to temperature differences.

y A large quantity of matter has a larger heat capacity than something smaller y Our oceans and atmosphere have large heat capacities due to their large sizes.Heat Capacity y Heat Capacity of an object is the required energy needed to raise the object s temperature by one degree. .

Specific Heat The measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by one degree.0102 Joule/gr oC Joule/gr Water 4. Copper 0.385 Joule/gr oC Joule/gr Dry Air 1.42 Joule/gr oC Joule/gr .88 Joule/gr oC Joule/gr Sand 0.0035 Joule/gr oC Joule/gr Humid Air 1.1813 Joule/gr oC Joule/gr Concrete 0.

.Relation of heat transfer to Temperature Although heat transfer and temperature are closely related.  Heat transfer has direction as well as magnitude it is a vector quantity. they are of a different nature.  We work with a coordinate system and indicate direction with plus or minus signs.  Temperature has only magnitude it is a scalar quantity.

z. y. t)) ± spherical (T(r.Three prime coordinate systems: ± rectangulaire (T(x. z. . . . t)). . t)) ± cylindrical (T(r.

Relation of heat transfer to thermodynamics First law of Thermodynamics: (U = Q + wK Q= wK+ (U y General case Q= (U y No work transfer Q Q System System wK .

although the heat transfer ight subsequentl combined ith ork of real s stem.The l sis f the heat transfer r cess enerall ne ith t reference t the rk r cess. If dv is the ork done then heat transfer .

When the substance undergoing process is incompressible ( so that v is constant for any pressure variation) the two specific heats are equal. Cp=Cv=C are same but in general solids and liquid are incompressible hence we can take If the heat transfer were reversible .

The answer is to introduce physical principal like transport law. however it cannot be evaluated using Tds because real heat transfer problem are all irreversible and S is not defined as a function of T in an irreversible process.y This seems to be Q can be evaluated independently for inclusion . y Since the rate of heat transfer cannot be predicted using Tds. Description of heat transfer requires that additional principle combined with first law of thermodynamics. If u(t) is known the work done is =0 then Q can be known but u(t) is unknown prior. .

Vocabulary Terms  infrared  thermal insulator  thermal equilibrium  forced convection  Convection  blackbody spectrum  Emisivity  Absorbivity  Irradaiton  Rodioacity  thermal conductivity  thermal conductor  blackbody  heat transfer  thermal radiation  free convection  heat transfer coefficient  conduction .

and radiation. .  There are three ways heat transfer works: conduction. convection.  Heat flow depends on the temperature difference.Heat Transfer  The science of how heat flows is called heat transfer.

Thermal Equilibrium  Two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with each other when they have the same temperature.  In nature. heat always flows from hot to cold until thermal equilibrium is reached. .

Heat Conduction Key Question: How does heat pass through different materials? .

y Dense metals like copper and aluminum are very good thermal conductors.Heat Conduction y Conduction is the transfer of heat through materials by the direct contact of matter. .

.Heat Conduction  A thermal insulator is a material that conducts heat poorly.  Heat flows very slowly through the plastic so that the temperature of your hand does not rise very much.

Heat Conduction  Styrofoam gets its insulating ability by trapping spaces of air in bubbles. and liquids are better conductors than gases.  Solids usually are better heat conductors than liquids. .

the trapped air makes a thermal insulator. .Heat Conduction  The ability to conduct heat often depends more on the structure of a material than on the material itself. ± When glass is spun into fine fibers. ± Solid glass is a thermal conductor when it is formed into a beaker or cup.

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Thermal Conductivity  thermal conductivity. k. is the property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. .

Thermal Conductivity  Heat conduction in solids and liquids works by transferring energy through bonds between atoms or molecules. .

Heat cti E ati Area of cross section (m2) Thermal conductivity (watts/moC) Heat flow (watts) PH = O A (T2 -T1) L Temperature difference (oC) Length (m) .

Variables for conduction .

Classification of conduction heat transfer problems:  steady versus transient heat transfer.  multidimensional heat transfer. .  heat generation.

Steady versus Transient Heat Transfer  Steady implies no change with time at any point within the medium  Transient implies variation with time or time dependence .

The bar has a cross section area of 0.0004 m2 and is one-half meter (0.5 m) long.Calculate Heat Transfer y A copper bar connects two beakers of water at different y y y y temperatures. One beaker is at 100°C and the other is at 0°C. How many watts of heat are conducted through the bar from the hot beaker to the cold beaker? The thermal conductivity of copper is 401 W/m°C. .

Convection Key Question: Can moving matter carry thermal energy? .

Convection  Convection is the transfer of heat by the motion of liquids and gases. ± Convection occurs because currents flow when hot gas rises and cool gas sink. . ± Convection in liquids also occurs because of differences in density. ± Convection in a gas occurs because gas expands when heated.

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.  When the flow of gas or liquid is circulated by pumps or fans it is called forced convection. it is called free convection.Convection  When the flow of gas or liquid comes from differences in density and temperature.

Convection y Convection depends on speed. . y Motion increases heat transfer by convection in all fluids.

 If the surface contacting the fluid is increased. the rate of heat transfer also increases.Convection  Convection depends on surface area.  Almost all devices made for convection have fins for this purpose. .

.Forced Convection y Bot free a force convection el to eat ouses and cool car engines.

Convection and Sea Breezes  On a s aller scale near coastlines.  uring t e dayti e. land is uc otter t an t e ocean.  t night the temperature reverses so a land reeze occurs. . convection is res onsi le for sea reezes.  sea reeze is created en ot air over t e land rises due to convection and is re laced y cooler air from t e ocean.

.Convection Currents y Much of the Earth s climate is regulated by giant convection currents in the ocean.

Heat vecti E ati Area contacting fluids (m2) Heat transfer coefficient (watts/m2oC) Heat flow (watts) PH = h A (T2 -T1) Temperature difference (oC) .

y A wind at 5°C (41oF) is blowing on the window fast enough to make the heat transfer coefficient 100 W/m2°C.Calculating convection y The surface of a window is a temperature of 18°C (64oF). y How much heat is transferred between the window and the air if the area of the window is 0.5 square meters? .

Radiation Key Question: How does heat from the sun get to Earth? Conduction and convection are small rage process continuum Partial differential equations .

.Radiation  Radiation is heat transfer by electromagnetic waves. the more thermal radiation it gives off.  Thermal radiation is electromagnetic waves (including light) produced by objects because of their temperature.  The higher the temperature of an object.

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Radiant Heat  We do not see the thermal radiation because it occurs at infrared wavelengths invisible to the human eye. .  Objects glow different colors at different temperatures.

or glow. y At 600°C objects glow dull red. like the burner on an electric stove. . y As objects heat up they start to give off visible light. y The curve for 20°C does not extend into visible wavelengths.Radiant Heat y A rock at room temperature does not glow .

. higher energy light. y At 1. turning to white at 1. y If you carefully watch a bulb on a dimmer switch.Radiant Heat y As the temperature rises.000°C the color is yellow-orange.600°C. you see its color change as the filament gets hotter.500°C. near 2. thermal radiation produces shorterwavelength. y The bright white light from a bulb is thermal radiation from an extremely hot filament.

y The graph of power

versus wavelength for a perfect blackbody is called the blackbody spectrum.

y A perfect blackbody is a surface that reflects nothing

and emits pure thermal radiation. 

The white-hot filament of a bulb is a good blackbody because all light from the filament is thermal radiation and almost none of it is reflected from other sources.  The curve for 2,600°C shows that radiation is emitted over the whole range of visible light.

Blackbody
y Theoretical concept, but useful in practice y Gives estimate of maximum absorption and emission

for surface y Blackbody emissive power (W/m2) depends on temperature (T) of surface

Eb ! W T

4

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Electromagnetic Spectrum of Waves

 The total power emitted as thermal radiation by a

blackbody depends on temperature (T) and surface area (A).  Real surfaces usually emit less than the blackbody power, typically between 10 and 90 percent.  The Kelvin temperature scale is used in the StefanBoltzmann formula because thermal radiation depends on the temperature above absolute zero.

Stefan-Boltz ann for la Surface area (m2) Power (watts) P = W AT4 Absolute temperature (K) Stefan-Boltzmann constant 5.67 x 10-8 watts/m2K4) .

Calculate Radiant Power  The filament in a light bulb has a diameter of 0.5 millimeters and a length of 50 millimeters. how much power does the filament radiate? .000 K.  The surface area of the filament is 4 × 10-8 m2.  If the temperature is 3.

radiant heat accounts for 74%  How is heat transferred when the pot sits on the element? .Radiant Heat  When comparing heat transfer for a pot 10 cm above a heating element on a stove.

e=1 y White Body: an ideal reflector is an object which reflects all the energy incident upon it.Absorber and Reflector y Blac Body: an ideal absorber is an object that absorbs all of the energy incident on it. e=0 y The terms white and black body don't necessarily refer to the actual color of the object. .

35 .08 0.0.1 .0.0.55 0. water . carbon.Emissivity and Absorptivity of selected surfaces Surface material Highly polished "white" metals. Emissivity 0.85 .4 .6 0.0. gold.0.9 0.0.6 0.7 .7 . nonmetal surfaces Dark colored nonmetals Dark paint.35 0.0.02 .9 Tabl taken fr Han book of Tabl for Engineering S ience by B l and Tuve .0. asphalt.3 .1 .0.0.1 .0.7 .4 0.95 Solar absorptivity 0.8 0.35 0.9 0.0. yellow brass Clean dark metals metallic pigment paints White.45 .

transparent solids. some fluids y Surface phenomenon radiation to/from solid or liquid surface y Thermal radiation emitted by all substances above absolute zero y Includes visible & infrared radiation & some UV radiation. .Types of Radiation y Two categories y Volumetric phenomenon radiation emitted or absorbed throughout gases.

y Magnitude & spectral distribution (how the radiation varies with wavelength) vary with temp & type of emitting surface. y Earth/sun example y Radiation is made up of a continuous. y The wavelength of the radiation is a major factor in what its effects will be.Radiation Properties y Magnitude of radiation varies with wavelength it s spectral. . nonuniform distribution of monochromatic (singlewavelength) components.

Emission Variation with Wavelength .

Additional properties of radiation y Directional distribution a surface doesn t emit the same in all directions. y Hemispherical refers to all directions .

Solid Angle Radiation Intensity (directional distribution) y differential solid angle d[!dAn/r2= dA1cosU/r2 =sinU dU dJ y A solid angle is for a sphere what an angle is for a circle y Units: steradians (sr). For a sphere [=4T sr .

Solid Angle. cont. .

Spectral Intensity I P .e .

J ! dq dAn  dZ  d P dAn ! dA1 cosU .U .P .

e .To solve for dq & dQ ! I P .

per unit area and solid angle).e integrated over all wavelengths. the rate of emission in a given direction. Then d &! I e .P .e. J dA U  d  dP y Sometimes we know the intensity Ie rather than the spectral intensity (i. This is IP..U .

U .J dA1 U  dZ .

Real Surfaces .

95 (blackboard) .Real Surfaces At thermal equilibrium y emissivity of surface = absorptivity I E  transmissivity of solid surfaces = 0  emissivity is the only significant parameter  emissivities vary from 0.1 (polished surfaces) to 0.

how much of my view would surface A2 take up?  hence only part of radiation emitted by surface A1 reaches surface A2  assumes uniform intensity of radiation in all directions (non-uniform intensity is beyond scope of course) .View Factors  if I was walking around surface A1 and I looked everywhere around me that I could.

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View Factor Resistance .

Applications of Radiation y Clothing y Black fabric acts as a good absorber y White fabric is a better reflector y Thermography y The amount of energy radiated by an object can be measured with a thermograph y Body temperature y Radiation thermometer measures the intensity of the infrared radiation from the eardrum .

Infrared Radiation of Work rolls in HSM (Thermo graph) Thermo graph of electric motor connections' .

Application: Energy-efficient Buildings .

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.g. N2).Key Points for Two-Surface Example y How to do view factor arithmetic y How to use the concepts of view factors. surface resistances and view factor resistances to solve radiation problems y How to develop radiation networks y Application: storage of very cold (cryogenic) fluids (e.

emissivity 0.1. temperature 500 K .Example: What is the Net HeatTransfer Rate? y Situation:y hemisphere (surface 1). temperature 700 K. emissivity 0. above y 1 m diameter disk (surface 2) .5.

Step 1: Sketch the Situation .

Step 2: Sketch Radiation Network y Surface and view factor resistances important y One surface resistance for each surface y One view factor resistance if one surface can see another .

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0 < F12 < 1 y Surface 2 (disk) y When looking towards surface 1. hemisphere. cannot see itself (flat or convex) y F22 = 0 . can see both surfaces 1 and 2 (concave surface) y 0 < F11 < 1.Step 3: View Factor Concept: Ant on Surface y Surface 1 (hemisphere): y When looking towards surface 2 (disk).

F22 = 1 y F12 = A2 F21 / A1 y A1 = 1.785 m2 y F12 = 0.571 m2.View Factor Arithmetic y F21 = 1 . A2 = 0.5 .

1 -2 ! ! 5.Step 4: Evaluate Resistances 1 I1 1  0.730 m A1 I 1 1.571.

0.5 -2 ! ! 1.1 1 I 2 1  0.273 m A2 I 2 0.785 .

0.5 1 1 -2 ! ! 1.571.273 m A1 F12 1.

5 .0.

28 m-2 .730+1.273+1.Step 5: Evaluate Total Resistance Total resistance = 5.273 = 8.

Step 6: Evaluate Emissive Powers (= Voltages) y Hemisphere (surface 1) and disk (surface 2) Eb 1 ! W T1 ! 5.67 x10 .

700 ! 13614 W m Eb 2 ! W T2 ! 5.67 x10 .

500 ! 3544 W m 4 8 4 8 4 -2 4 -2 .

Step 7: Evaluate Heat-Transfer Rate (= Current) 13614  3544 W m Nett heat flow ! -2 8.28 m ! 1220 W -2 .