Nazi Germany and the Holocaust

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Experiments, Studies, and Dr. Josef Mengele

Josef Mengele
Dr. Josef Mengele, nicknamed The Angel Of Death, tortured men, women and children and did medical experiments of unspeakable horror during the Holocaust. Victims were put into pressure chambers, tested with drugs, castrated, and at times frozen to death.

Josef Mengele
Mengele injected chemicals into the eyes of the children in an attempt to change their eye color. He carried out twin-to-twin transfusions, stitched twins together, castrated or sterilized twins. Many twins had limbs and organs removed in surgical procedures, performed without using an anesthetic.

Types of Experiments
Freezing/ Hypothermia Genetics Infectious Disease Surgery High Altitude Pharmacological Interrogation and Torture Traumatic Injuries

Freezing/Hypothermia
The freezing / hypothermia experiments were conducted for the Nazi high command. The experiments were conducted on men to simulate the conditions the armies suffered on the Eastern Front. Thousands of German soldiers died of freezing or were debilitated by cold injuries.

Freezing/Hypothermia
The experiments were conducted under the supervision of Dr. Sigmund Rascher at Birkenau, Dachau and Auschwitz. Dr. Rascher reported directly to Himmler.

Freezing/Hypothermia
The freezing experiments were divided into two parts. First, to establish how long it would take to lower the body temperature to death and second how to best resuscitate the frozen victim. The two main methods used to freeze the victim were to put the person in a icy vat of water or to put the victim outside naked in sub-zero temperatures.

Lowering Body Temperature
The two main methods used to freeze the victim were: 1) Put the person in a icy vat of water 2) Put the victim outside naked in sub-zero temperatures.

Lowering Body Temperature

Warming Experiments
Sun Lamps The victims were placed under sun lamps which were so hot they would burn the skin. One young homosexual victim was repeatedly cooled to unconsciousness then revived with lamps until he was pouring sweat. He died one evening after several test sessions.

Warming Experiments
Internal Irrigation
The frozen victim would have water heated to a near blistering temperature forcefully irrigated into the stomach, bladder, and intestines. All victims appeared to have died from the treatment.

Warming Experiments
Hot Bath
The victim was placed in warm water and the temperature was slowly increased. This method proved to be the best. Many victims died due to shock if they were warmed up to quickly.

Genetic Experiments
Mengele did a number of medical experiments of unspeakable horror at Auschwitz, using twins. These twins as young as five years of age were usually murdered after the experiment was over and their bodies dissected.

Genetic Experiments
Mengele injected chemicals into the eyes of children in an attempt to change their eye color. Unfortunately a strict veil of secrecy over the experiments enabled Mengele to do his work more effectively.

Genetic Experiments

Genetic Experiments (Surviving Twins)
"Dr. Mengele had always been more interested in Tibi. I am not sure why perhaps because he was the older twin. Mengele made several operations on Tibi. One surgery on his spine left my brother paralyzed. He could not walk anymore. Then they took out his sexual organs. After the fourth operation, I did not see Tibi anymore. I cannot tell you how I felt. It is impossible to put into words how I felt. They had taken away my father, my mother, my two older brothers - and now, my twin ..."

Genetic Experiments (Surviving Twins)
³Before the experiments began, Mengele came and tattooed my number personally. They put us in freezing baths, smeared chemicals on our skin, but it was the needles we were most afraid of. After the first 150 injections I stopped counting ... One morning in July 1944 I spotted my mother among a long line of women moving toward the gas chamber. Mengele called me in and gave me an errand to the crematorium. He knew I would see my mother go to her death. A couple of days later he asked me if I still believed in God."

Pharmacological Experiments
Mustard Gas Experiments: to investigate the most effective treatment of wounds caused by Mustard gas. Wounds deliberately inflicted on the victims were infected with Mustard gas. Some of the victims died as a result of these experiments and others suffered intense pain and injury.

Pharmacological Experiments
Sulfanilamide Experiments: to investigate the effectiveness of sulfanilamide. Wounds deliberately inflicted on the victims were infected with bacteria such as streptococcus, gas gangrene, and tetanus. Circulation of blood was interrupted by tying off blood vessels at both ends of the wound to create a condition similar to a battlefield wound. Infection was aggravated by forcing wood shavings and ground glass into the wounds. The infection was treated with sulfanilamide and other drugs to determine their effectiveness.

Pharmacological Experiments

Sea Water Experiments
Sea-water Experiments: to study various methods of making sea water drinkable. The victims were deprived of all food and given only chemically processed sea water.

High Altitude Experiments
High-Altitude Experiments: to investigate the limits of human endurance and existence at extremely high altitudes. The victims were placed in the lowpressure chamber and thereafter the simulated altitude therein was raised.

High Altitude Experiments

Infectious Disease Experiments
Experiments with Poison: to investigate the effect of various poisons upon human beings. The poisons were secretly administered to the victims in their food. The victims died as a result of the poison or were killed immediately in order to permit autopsies. In or about September 1944 the victims were shot with poison bullets and suffered torture and death.

Infectious Disease Experiments

Infectious Disease Experiments
Spotted Fever (Typhus) Experiments: to investigate the effectiveness of spotted fever and other vaccines. Numerous victims were deliberately infected with spotted fever virus in order to keep the virus alive - over 90 percent of the victims died as a result.

Infectious Disease Experiments
Malaria Experiments: to investigate immunization for and treatment of malaria. The victims were infected by mosquitoes or by injections of extracts of the mucous glands of mosquitoes. After having contracted malaria the victims were treated with various drugs to test their relative efficacy. Over 1,000 victims were used in these experiments. Many died and others suffered severe pain and permanent disability.

Malaria Experiment Survivor
"I was given five injections. That evening I developed extremely high fever. I was trembling. My arms and my legs were swollen, huge size. Mengele and Dr. Konig and three other doctors came in the next morning. They looked at my fever chart, and Dr. Mengele said, laughingly, 'Too bad, she is so young. She has only two weeks to live .."

Nazi Experiment Photographs
The following photographs are going to show actual documentation of victims who fell prey to Nazi experiments.

Nazi Experiment Photographs

Nazi Experiment Photographs

Nazi Experiment Photographs

Nazi Experiment Photographs

Nazi Experiment Photographs

Nazi Experiment Photographs

Nazi Experiment Photographs
A war crimes investigation photo of the disfigured leg of survivor Helena Hegier, who was subjected to medical experiments in 1942. This photograph was entered as evidence for the prosecution at the Medical Trial in Nuremberg. The disfiguring scars resulted from incisions made by medical personnel that were purposely infected with bacteria, dirt, and slivers of glass.

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