Electroencephalography ( EEG

)

Nidhin Thomas Kartik Jain

´Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp produced by the firing of neurons within the brain.µ

History
1929: Hans Berger developed the electroencephalography (=graphic representation of the difference in voltage between two different cerebral locations plotted over time) following the studies of Richard Caton in nonhuman animal species. He described the human alpha and beta rhythms

Gray Walter ² Brain Imaging In 1957. Gray Walter Makes recordings with large numbers of electrodes Visualizes brain activity with the toposcope Shows that brain rhythms change according to the mental task demanded The toposcope by Gray Walter .

a reference electrode in an inactive area. and skull bone Monopolar Technique : the use of one active recording electrode placed on area of interest. resistance caused by cerebrospinal fluid. and a ground Bipolar Technique : the use of two active electrodes on areas of interest Measures brain waves (graphs voltage over time) through electrodes by using the summation of many action potentials sent by neurons in brain. Measured amplitudes are lessened with electrodes on surface of skin compared to electrocorticogram .Functions of EEG The EEG uses highly conductive silver electrodes coated with silversilverchloride and gold cup electrodes to obtain accurate measures« use impedance device to measure effectiveness.

EEG Acquisition Electrodes: Ag/AgCl. tin« Active electrodes: Attached to the scalp Reference electrode: Mastoid. The EEG records differences in voltage ± difference in electrical potential from one electrode to another!! .. ear lobe. nose..

EEG in clinical diagnostics EEG in scientific research .

Electrode Positioning system .

EEG Electrodes Sliver Electrodes Electrodes Cap .

Procedure of EEG recording A standard EEG makes use of 21 electrodes linked in various ways (Montage). . Check the impedance of the electrodes. Ask the subject to lie down in bed. Apply electrode according to 10/20% system.

10 /20 % system of EEG electrode placement .

Major Brain Regions .

the EEG is a 2-D representation of a 3-D reality. Thus. electrode. which poses a problem in localizing the sources of the electrical activity .What does the EEG record? Mainly NOISE!! The electrical activity flows through the tissue between the electrical generator and the recording electrode.

Sodium-Potassium Pump Sodium- The mechanism within neurons that creates action potentials through the exchange between sodium and potassium ions in and out of the cell Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) provides energy for proteins to pump 300 sodium ions per second out of the cell while simultaneously pumping 200 potassium ions per second into the cell (concentration gradient) Thus making the outside of the cell more positively charged and the neuron negatively charged This rapid ionic movement causes the release of action potentials .

what is left is µrelated to the event¶ ‡ EEG = 20-50Qv / ERP = 1-10 Qv . cognitive.What are Event-Related Potentials? Event‡ ERPs ± ³Electrical Potentials associated with specific sensory. or motor events´ ‡ From EEG to ERP« ± Time-locked average of EEG from many trials involving same µevent¶ ± Signal/Noise Ratio reduction. perceptual.

Electrical activity at the onset of a stimulus recorded Filter & Amplify Average across Trials & Individuals Collapsed to form a ´Grand Averageµ Or mean of means .

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30 20 5±7 Above 50 2±4 Above 50 . drowsy adult. emotional distress Occipital Children in sleep Alpha( ) Beta( ) Theta( ) Delta( ) 14 .Different types of brain waves in normal EEG Rhythm Frequency Amplitude (Hz) (uV) 8 ± 13 50 ± 100 Recording & Location Adults. mental activity Frontal region Children. Occipital region Adult. rest. eyes closed.

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Level of consciousness (sleep) Hypocapnia(hyperventilation) slow & high amplitude waves.Factors influencing EEG Age Infancy ² theta. delta wave Child ² alpha formation. Hypoglycemia Hypothermia Low glucocorticoids . Adult ² all four waves.

Desynchronization or Alpha block Cause: Eyes opening (after closure) Thinking by the subject (mathematical calculation) Sound (clapping) .

Eye opening Alpha rhythm changes to beta on eye opening (desynchronization / .block) .

Thinking Beta waves are observed .

Provocation test Intermittent photic stimulation Increase rate & decrease amplitude Hyperventilation Decrease rate & increase in amplitude .

supplement neuroimaging studies Provides direct rather than indirect evidence of epileptic abnormality May be the only test that shows abnormalities in epileptic patients Provides some spatial or localization information Low cost Low morbidity Readily repeatable Portable / ambulatory .Strengths and Advantages of EEG Is a measure of brain function.

hypoglycemia. drugs Small or deep lesions might not produce an EEG abnormality Limited time sampling (for routine EEG) and spatial sampling May falsely localize epileptogenic zone .Limitations and Disadvantages Of EEG Detects cortical dysfunction but rarely discloses its etiology Relatively low sensitivity and specificity Subject to both electrical and physiologic artifacts Influenced by state of alertness.

ocular muscles and eyelid) ECG artifacts EMG artifacts Glossokinetic artifacts (minor tongue movements) External artifacts Movement by the patient settling of the electrodes Poor grounding of the EEG electrodes the presence of an IV drip .EEG Artifacts Biological artifacts Eye artifacts (including eyeball.

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Computerized EEG Machine .

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